Navy daughter quotes

Navy daughter quotes DEFAULT

Agriculture

"The proper role of government, however, is that of partner with the farmer -- never his master. By every possible means we must develop and promote that partnership -- to the end that agriculture may continue to be a sound, enduring foundation for our economy and that farm living may be a profitable and satisfying experience."
Special Message to the Congress on Agriculture, 1/9/56

"You know, farming looks mighty easy when your plow is a pencil, and you're a thousand miles from the corn field."
Address at Bradley University, Peoria, Illinois, 9/25/56

Anecdotes

"I come from the very heart of America."
Guildhall Speech, London, 6/12/45 Audio clip

"The proudest thing I can claim is that I am from Abilene."
Homecoming Speech, Abilene, Kansas, 6/22/45  Audio clip

"Don't defend yourself. Don't explain. Don't worry."
Letter, DDE to Omar Bradley, 10/26/1949 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Box 13]

"Whatever America hopes to bring to pass in the world must first come to pass in the heart of America."
Inaugural Address, Washington, DC, 1/20/53Audio clip

"For history does not long entrust the care of freedom to the weak or the timid."
Inaugural Address, Washington, DC, 1/20/53 Audio clip

"A people that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both."
Inaugural Address, Washington, DC, 1/20/53Audio clip

"There is -- in world affairs -- a steady course to be followed between an assertion of strength that is truculent and a confession of helplessness that is cowardly."
State of the Union Address, 2/2/53 Audio clip

"Thank goodness, many years ago, I had a preceptor, for whom my admiration has never died, and he had a favorite saying, one that I trust I try to live by. It was: always take your job seriously, never yourself."
Address at the New England "Forward to '54" Dinner, Boston, Massachusetts, 9/21/53

"I was raised in a little town of which most of you have never heard. But in the West it is a famous place. It is called Abilene, Kansas. We had as our marshal for a long time a man named Wild Bill Hickok. If you don't know anything about him, read your Westerns more. Now that town had a code, and I was raised as a boy to prize that code. It was: meet anyone face to face with whom you disagree. You could not sneak up on him from behind, or do any damage to him, without suffering the penalty of an outraged citizenry. If you met him face to face and took the same risks he did, you could get away with almost anything, as long as the bullet was in the front."
Remarks Upon Receiving America's Democratic Legacy Award at a B'nai B'rith Dinner in Honor of the 40th Anniversary of the Anti-Defamation League, 11/23/53 Audio clip

"There is an old saw in the services: that which is not inspected deteriorates."
The President's News Conference of 5/12/54 Audio clip

"Well, it is very important, and the great idea of setting up an organism is so as to defeat the domino result. When, each standing alone, one falls, it has the effect on the next, and finally the whole row is down. You are trying, through a unifying influence, to build that row of dominoes so they can stand the fall of one, if necessary."
The President's News Conference of 5/12/54 Audio clip

"When I was a boy, I was one of six in my family. We had a quarrel daily as to who could go up and do the chore of bringing the groceries down home. They had a practice then, in grocery stores, that I understand growing efficiency has eliminated -- always hoping that the grocer would say you can have one of the dried prunes out of the barrel over there. But better than that was the dill pickle jar that you could dive into, sometimes arm deep almost, and try to get one. I understand that they are not that accommodating anymore; we have got too efficient. When you go around picking things off the shelf, you pay for them. These, you understand, were free. That meant a lot to young boys to whom a nickel looked about as big as a wheel on a farm wagon."
Remarks at the Convention of the National Association of Retail Grocers, 6/16/54Audio clip

"Now I realize that on any particular decision a very great amount of heat can be generated. But I do say this: life is not made up of just one decision here, or another one there. It is the total of the decisions that you make in your daily lives with respect to politics, to your family, to your environment, to the people about you. Government has to do that same thing. It is only in the mass that finally philosophy really emerges."
Remarks at Luncheon Meeting of the Republican National Committee and the Republican National Finance Committee, 2/17/55

"Today there is a great ideological struggle going on in the world. One side upholds what it calls the materialistic dialectic. Denying the existence of spiritual values, it maintains that man responds only to materialistic influences and consequently he is nothing. He is an educated animal and is useful only as he serves the ambitions -- desires -- of a ruling clique; though they try to make this finer-sounding than that, because they say their dictatorship is that of the proletariat, meaning that they rule in the people's name -- for the people. Now, on our side, we recognize right away that man is not merely an animal, that his life and his ambitions have at the bottom a foundation of spiritual values."
Remarks at 11th Annual Washington Conference of the Advertising Council, 3/22/55 Audio clip

"Some politician some years ago said that bad officials are elected by good voters who do not vote."
Remarks at the Breakfast Meeting of Republican State Chairmen, Denver, Colorado, 9/10/55

"Change based on principle is progress. Constant change without principle becomes chaos."
Address at the Cow Palace on Accepting the Nomination of the Republican National Convention, 8/23/56 Audio clip

"One American put it this way: 'Every tomorrow has two handles. We can take hold of it with the handle of anxiety or the handle of faith'."
Address at the Cow Palace on Accepting the Nomination of the Republican National Convention, 8/23/56 Audio clip

"The world moves, and ideas that were good once are not always good."
The President's News Conference of 8/31/56 Audio clip

"I believe when you are in any contest you should work like there is always to the very last minute a chance to lose it. This is battle, this is politics, this is anything. So I just see no excuse if you believe anything enough for not putting your whole heart into it. It is what I do."
The President's News Conference of 9/27/56Audio clip

"I belong to a family of boys who were raised in meager circumstances in central Kansas, and every one of us earned our way as we went along, and it never occurred to us that we were poor, but we were."
Television Broadcast: "The People Ask the President," 10/12/56

"The hope of the world is that wisdom can arrest conflict between brothers. I believe that war is the deadly harvest of arrogant and unreasoning minds."
Address, National Education Association, Washington, DC, 4/4/57 Audio clip

"I tell this story to illustrate the truth of the statement I heard long ago in the Army: Plans are worthless, but planning is everything."
Remarks at the National Defense Executive Reserve Conference, 11/14/57 Audio clip

"But these calculations overlook the decisive element: what counts is not necessarily the size of the dog in the fight -- it's the size of the fight in the dog."
Excerpts From Remarks at Republican National Committee Breakfast, 1/31/58

"But finally, there is one other quality I would mention among these that I believe will fit you for difficult and important posts. This is a healthy and lively sense of humor."
Address at U. S. Naval Academy Commencement, 6/4/58

"A famous Frenchman once said, 'War has become far too important to entrust to the generals.' Today, business, I think, should be saying: 'Politics have become far too important to entrust to the politicians'."
Remarks, Business Council, Hot Springs, Virginia, 10/20/62

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Censorship

"Censorship, in my opinion, is a stupid and shallow way of approaching the solution to any problem. Though sometimes necessary, as witness a professional and technical secret that may have a bearing upon the welfare and very safety of this country, we should be very careful in the way we apply it, because in censorship always lurks the very great danger of working to the disadvantage of the American nation."
Associated Press luncheon, New York, New York, 4/24/50

"Don't join the book burners. Don't think you are going to conceal faults by concealing evidence that they ever existed. Don't be afraid to go in your library and read every book, as long as that document does not offend our own ideas of decency. That should be the only censorship."
Remarks at the Dartmouth College Commencement Exercises, Hanover, New Hampshire, 6/14/53 [AUDIO]

Children/Youth/Families

"Youth -- our greatest resource -- is being seriously neglected in a vital respect. The nation as a whole is not preparing teachers or building schools fast enough to keep up with the increase in our population."
Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, 1/7/54 [AUDIO]

"I say with all the earnestness that I can command, that if American mothers will teach our children that there is no end to the fight for better relationships among the people of the world, we shall have peace."
Address to the National Council of Catholic Women, Boston, Massachusetts, 11/8/54

"In this connection, I should mention our enormous national debt. We must begin to make some payments on it if we are to avoid passing on to our children an impossible burden of debt."
Remarks on the State of the Union Message, Key West, Florida, 1/5/56 [AUDIO]

"Teachers need our active support and encouragement. They are doing one of the most necessary and exacting jobs in the land. They are developing our most precious national resource: our children, our future citizens."
Address at the Centennial Celebration Banquet of the National Education Association, 4/4/57 [AUDIO]

"Now, the education of our children is of national concern, and if they are not educated properly, it is a national calamity."
The President's News Conference of 7/31/57 [AUDIO]

"I am not here, of course, as one pretending to any expertness on questions of youth and children -- except in the sense that, within their own families, all grandfathers are experts on these matters."
Address at the Opening Session of the White House Conference on Children and Youth, College Park, Maryland, 3/27/60 [AUDIO]

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Citizenship

"Democracy is essentially a political system that recognizes the equality of humans before the law." - Address to Constituent Assembly, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 8, 1946

"The freedom of the individual and his willingness to follow real leadership are at the core of America's strength." - Address at Norwich University, Northfield, Vermont, June 9, 1946

"The proudest human that walks the earth is a free American citizen." - Talk at the Commercial Club of Chicago, May 21, 1948

"A people that values its privileges above its principles soon loses both." - Inaugural Address, January 20, 1953

"I believe the only way to protect my own rights is to protect the rights of others." - Remarks at the United Negro College Fund luncheon, May 19, 1953

"I believe as long as we allow conditions to exist that make for second-class citizens, we are making of ourselves less than first-class citizens." - Remarks at the United Negro College Fund luncheon, May 19, 1953

"The general limits of your freedom are merely these: that you do not trespass upon the equal rights of others." - Remarks to the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, April 22, 1954

"The history of free men is never really written by chance--but by choice--their choice." - Address in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, October 9, 1956

"A foundation of our American way of life is our national respect for law." - Address to the American People on the situation in Little Rock, Arkansas, September 24, 1957

"Freedom under law is like the air we breathe." - Remarks on the Observance of Law Day, April 30, 1958

"It is only as we govern ourselves that we are well-governed." - Remarks on the Observance of Law Day, April 30, 1958

Civil Rights

"I propose to use whatever authority exists in the office of the President to end segregation in the District of Columbia, including the Federal Government, and any segregation in the Armed Forces."
Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, 2/2/53 [AUDIO]

"We have erased segregation in those areas of national life to which Federal authority clearly extends. So doing in this, my friends, we have neither sought nor claimed partisan credit, and all such actions are nothing more -- nothing less than the rendering of justice. And we have always been aware of this great truth: the final battle against intolerance is to be fought -- not in the chambers of any legislature -- but in the hearts of men."
Address at the Hollywood Bowl, Beverly Hills, California, 10/19/56 [AUDIO]

"It was my hope that this localized situation would be brought under control by city and State authorities. If the use of local police powers had been sufficient, our traditional method of leaving the problems in those hands would have been pursued. But when large gatherings of obstructionists made it impossible for the decrees of the Court to be carried out, both the law and the national interest demanded that the President take action."
Radio and Television Address to the American People on the Situation in Little Rock 9/24/57 [AUDIO]

"I do not believe that all of these problems can be solved just by a new law, or something that someone says, with teeth in it. For example, when we got into the Little Rock thing, it was not my province to talk about segregation or desegregation. I had the job of supporting a federal court that had issued a proper order under the Constitution, and where compliance was prevented by action that was unlawful."
The President's News Conference of 3/26/58

"I believe that the United States as a government, if it is going to be true to its own founding documents, does have the job of working toward that time when there is no discrimination made on such inconsequential reason as race, color, or religion."
The President's News Conference of 5/13/59

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Education

"The true purpose of education is to prepare young men and women for effective citizenship in a free form of government."
Speech at William and Mary College, Williamsburg, Virginia, May 15, 1953 [AUDIO]

"It is unwise to make education too cheap. If everything is provided freely, there is a tendency to put no value on anything. Education must always have a certain price on it; even as the very process of learning itself must always require individual effort and initiative."
Address, Centennial Celebration Banquet of the National Education Association, Washington, DC, 4/4/57 [AUDIO]

Government

"One of my predecessors is said to have observed that in making his decisions he had to operate like a football quarterback -- he could not very well call the next play until he saw how the last play turned out. Well, that may be a good way to run a football team, but in these days it is no way to run a government."
Address at the Cow Palace on Accepting the Nomination of the Republican National Convention, 8/23/56 [AUDIO]

"A sound nation is built of individuals sound in body and mind and spirit. Government dares not ignore the individual citizen."
Address at a Rally in the Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio, 10/1/56 [AUDIO]

"We cannot safely confine government programs to our own domestic progress and our own military power. We could be the wealthiest and the most mighty nation and still lose the battle of the world if we do not help our world neighbors protect their freedom and advance their social and economic progress. It is not the goal of the American people that the United States should be the richest nation in the graveyard of history."
Special Message to the Congress on the Mutual Security Program, 3/13/59

Holocaust

"But the most interesting -- although horrible -- sight that I encountered during the trip was a visit to a German internment camp near Gotha. The things I saw beggar description. While I was touring the camp I encountered three men who had been inmates and by one ruse or another had made their escape. I interviewed them through an interpreter. The visual evidence and the verbal testimony of starvation, cruelty and bestiality were so overpowering as to leave me a bit sick. In one room, where they [there] were piled up twenty or thirty naked men, killed by starvation, George Patton would not even enter. He said he would get sick if he did so. I made the visit deliberately, in order to be in position to give first-hand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops a tendency to charge these allegations merely to 'propaganda'."
Letter, DDE to George C. Marshall, 4/15/45 [The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, The War Years IV, doc #2418]

"We continue to uncover German concentration camps for political prisoners in which conditions of indescribable horror prevail. I have visited one of these myself and I assure you that whatever has been printed on them to date has been understatement. If you would see any advantage in asking about a dozen leaders of Congress and a dozen prominent editors to make a short visit to this theater in a couple of C-54's, I will arrange to have them conducted to one of these places where the evidence of bestiality and cruelty is so overpowering as to leave no doubt in their minds about the normal practices of the Germans in these camps."
Cable, DDE to George C. Marshall, 4/19/45 [The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, The War Years IV, doc #2424]

"When I found the first camp like that I think I never was so angry in my life. The bestiality displayed there was not merely piled up bodies of people that had starved to death, but to follow out the road and see where they tried to evacuate them so they could still work, you could see where they sprawled on the road. You could go to their burial pits and see horrors that really I wouldn't even want to begin to describe. I think people ought to know about such things. It explains something of my attitude toward the German war criminal. I believe he must be punished, and I will hold out for that forever."
Press conference, 6/18/45 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 156, Press Statements and Releases, 1944-46 (1)]

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Korean War

"We have now gained a truce in Korea. We do not greet it with wild rejoicing. We know how dear its cost has been in life and treasure."
Radio Report to the American People on the Achievements of the Administration and the 83d Congress, 8/6/53 [AUDIO]

"Obviously all of us know that the composition that was reached in Korea is not satisfactory to America, but it is far better than to continue the bloody, dreary, sacrifice of lives with no possible strictly military victory in sight."
Address at the Illinois State Fair at Springfield, 8/19/54 [AUDIO]

"And of course, there was the war in Korea, a war around which there had grown up such a political situation that military victory, at least a decisive military victory, was no longer in the cards."
Radio and Television Address to the American People on the Achievements of the 83rd Congress, 8/23/54 [AUDIO]

"In June of last year we negotiated a truce which ended the Korean War, preserved the Republic of Korea's freedom, and frustrated the Communist design for conquest."
Address at the American Legion Convention, 8/30/54 [AUDIO]

Labor

I have no use for those — regardless of their political party — who hold some foolish dream of spinning the clock back to days when unorganized labor was a huddled, almost helpless mass.
Speech to the American Federation of Labor, New York City, 9/17/52

Today in America unions have a secure place in our industrial life. Only a handful of unreconstructed reactionaries harbor the ugly thought of breaking unions. Only a fool would try to deprive working men and women of the right to join the union of their choice.
Speech to the American Federation of Labor, New York City, 9/17/52

Government can do a great deal to aid the settlement of labor disputes without allowing itself to be employed as an ally of either side. Its proper role in industrial strife is to encourage the process of mediation and conciliation.
State of the Union Message, Washington, DC, 2/2/53 [AUDIO]

Leadership/Organization

"What is Leadership?" by Dwight D. Eisenhower

"You have got to have something in which to believe. You have got to have leaders, organization, friendships, and contacts that help you to believe that, and help you to put out your best."
Remarks to the Leaders of the United Defense Fund, 4/29/54 [AUDIO]

"Now I think, speaking roughly, by leadership we mean the art of getting someone else to do something that you want done because he wants to do it, not because your position of power can compel him to do it, or your position of authority. A commander of a regiment is not necessarily a leader. He has all of the appurtenances of power given by a set of Army regulations by which he can compel unified action. He can say to a body such as this, "Rise," and "Sit down." You do it exactly. But that is not leadership."
Remarks at the Annual Conference of the Society for Personnel Administration, 5/12/54 [AUDIO]

"The job of getting people really wanting to do something is the essence of leadership. And one of the things a leader needs occasionally is the inspiration he gets from the people he leads. The old tactical textbooks say that the commander always visits his troops to inspire them to fight. I for one soon discovered that one of the reasons for my visiting the front lines was to get inspiration from the young American soldier. I went back to my job ashamed of my own occasional resentments or discouragements, which I probably -- at least I hope I concealed them."
Remarks at the Breakfast Meeting of Republican State Chairmen, Denver, Colorado, 9/10/55

"As long as I am back in my military life for a second, I should like to observe one thing about leadership that one of the great has said -- Napoleon. He said, the great leader, the genius in leadership, is the man who can do the average thing when everybody else is going crazy."
Address at Meeting Sponsored by the Republican National Committee, 4/17/56

"The essence of leadership is to get others to do something because they think you want it done and because they know it is worth while doing -- that is what we are talking about."
Remarks at the Republican Campaign Picnic at the President's Gettysburg Farm, 9/12/56

"Leadership is a word and a concept that has been more argued than almost any other I know."
The President's News Conference of 11/14/56

"My life has been largely spent in affairs that required organization. But organization itself, necessary as it is, is never sufficient to win a battle."
Remarks to Participants in the Young Republican National Leadership Training School, 1/20/60 [AUDIO]

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Peace

"Since the advent of nuclear weapons, it seems clear that there is no longer any alternative to peace, if there is to be a happy and well world."
Remarks at the Department of State 1954 Honor Awards Ceremony, 10/19/54 [AUDIO]

"There can be no true disarmament without peace, and there can be no real peace without very material disarmament."
Remarks at the Republican Women's National Conference, 5/10/55 [AUDIO]

"The peace we seek and need means much more than mere absence of war. It means the acceptance of law, and the fostering of justice, in all the world."
Radio and Television Report to the American People on the Developments in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, 10/31/56 [AUDIO]

"In vast stretches of the earth, men awoke today in hunger. They will spend the day in unceasing toil. And as the sun goes down they will still know hunger. They will see suffering in the eyes of their children. Many despair that their labor will ever decently shelter their families or protect them against disease. So long as this is so, peace and freedom will be in danger throughout our world. For wherever free men lose hope of progress, liberty will be weakened and the seeds of conflict will be sown."
Remarks of Welcome to the Delegates to the Tenth Colombo Plan Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 11/10/58 [AUDIO]

"I like to believe that people, in the long run, are going to do more to promote peace than our governments. Indeed, I think that people want peace so much that one of these days governments had better get out of the way and let them have it."
Radio and Television Broadcast With Prime Minister Macmillan in London, 8/31/59

“So -- our readiness to meet and defeat this kind of possible attack is forced upon us, both as a potent preventive of actual war and to insure survival in event of attack. This alertness to danger has to be translated into specific policies and activities in the several parts of the world where our rights -- our way of life -- can be seriously damaged. Work of this kind occupies my days and nights.”
Letter from DDE to Hallock Brown Hoffman, February 7, 1955

“I have said time and again there is no place on this earth to which I would not travel, there is no chore I would not undertake if I had any faintest hope that, by so doing, I would promote the general cause of world peace.”
The President's News Conference, March 23, 1955 [AUDIO]

“As for myself and for the Secretary of State and others involved, including those in the Legislature, we stand ready to do anything, to meet with anyone, anywhere, as long as we may do so in self-respect, demanding the respect due this Nation, and there is any slightest idea or chance of furthering this great cause of peace.”
Remarks at the Republican Women's National Conference, May 10, 1955 [AUDIO]

“For a just and lasting peace, here is my solemn pledge to you: by dedication and patience we will continue, as long as I remain your President, to work for this simple -- this single -- this exclusive goal.”
Address at Byrd Field, Richmond, Virginia, October 29, 1956 [AUDIO]

“The building of such a peace is a bold and solemn purpose. To proclaim it is easy. To serve it will be hard. And to attain it, we must be aware of its full meaning -- and ready to pay its full price.”
Second Inaugural Address, January 21, 1957 [AUDIO]

“For all that we cherish and justly desire -- for ourselves or for our children -- the securing of peace is the first requisite.”
Radio and Television Address to the American People on the Need for Mutual Security in Waging the Peace, May 21, 1957

“Having established as our goals a lasting world peace with justice and the security of freedom on this earth, we must be prepared to make whatever sacrifices are demanded as we pursue this path to its end.”
Remarks at the Fort Pitt Chapter, Association of the United States Army May 31, 1961

"My first day at the President's Desk. Plenty of worries and difficult problems. But such has been my portion for a long time -- the result is that this just seems (today) like a continuation of all I've been doing since July '41 -- even before that!"
Diary entry, 1/21/53 [DDE Diaries: 1935-38, 1942, 1948-53, 1966, 1968, 1969; Box 1; 1953 DDE Desk Diary]

"I would say that the Presidency is probably the most taxing job, as far as tiring of the mind and spirit; but it also has, as I have said before, its inspirations which tend to counteract each other . . . There have been times in war where I thought nothing could be quite as wearing and tearing as that with lives directly involved. But I would say, on the whole, this is the most wearing, although not necessarily, as I say, the most tiring."
The President's News Conference at Key West, Florida, 1/8/56

"Many people are always saying the Presidency is too big a job for any one man. When I hear this assertion, I always try to point out that a single man must make the final decisions that affect the whole, but that proper organization brings to him only the questions and problems on which his decisions are needed. His own job is to be mentally prepared to make those decisions and then to be supported by an organization that will make sure they are carried out."
Letter, DDE to Dillon Anderson, 1/22/68 [DDE's Post-Presidential Papers, 1968 Principal File, Box 36, "An"]

"On the other hand, I found that getting things done sometimes required other weapons from the Presidential arsenal -- persuasion, cajolery, even a little head-thumping here and there -- to say nothing of a personal streak of obstinacy which on occasion fires my boilers."
Some Thoughts on the Presidency, Reader's Digest, November 1968

Religion

"In other words, our form of government has no sense unless it is founded in a deeply felt religious faith, and I don't care what it is."
Address at the Freedoms Foundation, Waldorf-Astoria, New York City, New York, 12/22/52

"Today I think that prayer is just simply a necessity, because by prayer I believe we mean an effort to get in touch with the Infinite. We know that even our prayers are imperfect. Even our supplications are imperfect. Of course they are. We are imperfect human beings. But if we can back off from those problems and make the effort, then there is something that ties us all together. We have begun in our grasp of that basis of understanding, which is that all free government is firmly founded in a deeply-felt religious faith."
Remarks at the Dedicatory Prayer Breakfast of the International Christian Leadership, 2/5/53

"The churches of America are citadels of our faith in individual freedom and human dignity. This faith is the living source of all our spiritual strength. And this strength is our matchless armor in our world-wide struggle against the forces of godless tyranny and oppression."
Message to the National Co-Chairmen, Commission of Religious Organizations, National Conference on Christians and Jews, 7/9/53

"From this day forward, the millions of our school children will daily proclaim in every city and town, every village and rural school house, the dedication of our nation and our people to the Almighty. To anyone who truly loves America, nothing could be more inspiring than to contemplate this rededication of our youth, on each school morning, to our country's true meaning.
Especially is this meaningful as we regard today's world. Over the globe, mankind has been cruelly torn by violence and brutality and, by the millions, deadened in mind and soul by a materialistic philosophy of life. Man everywhere is appalled by the prospect of atomic war. In this somber setting, this law and its effects today have profound meaning. In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America's heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our country's most powerful resource, in peace or in war."
Statement by the President Upon Signing Bill to Include the Words "Under God" in the Pledge to the Flag, 6/14/54

"Faith is the mightiest force that man has at his command. It impels human beings to greatness in thought and word and deed."
Address at the Second Assembly of the World Council of Churches, Evanston, Illinois, 8/19/54 [AUDIO]

"We are essentially a religious people. We are not merely religious, we are inclined, more today than ever, to see the value of religion as a practical force in our affairs."
Address at the Second Assembly of the World Council of Churches, Evanston, Illinois, 8/19/54 [AUDIO]

"Without God, there could be no American form of Government, nor an American way of life. Recognition of the Supreme Being is the first -- the most basic -- expression of Americanism. Thus the Founding Fathers saw it, and thus, with God's help, it will continue to be."
Remarks Recorded for the "Back-to-God" Program of the American Legion, 2/20/55

"Since the day of creation, the fondest hopes of men and women have been to pass on to their children something better than they themselves enjoyed. That hope represents a spark of the Divine which is implanted in every human breast."
Address at the Signing of the Declaration of Principles at the Meeting of the Presidents in Panama City, 7/22/56

"The purpose is Divine; the implementation is human. Our country and its government have made mistakes -- human mistakes. They have been of the head -- not of the heart. And it is still true that the great concept of the dignity of all men, alike created in the image of the Almighty, has been the compass by which we have tried and are trying to steer our course."
Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, 1/10/57

"Basic to our democratic civilization are the principles and convictions that have bound us together as a nation. Among these are personal liberty, human rights, and the dignity of man. All these have their roots in a deeply held religious faith -- in a belief in God."
Address at U.S. Naval Academy Commencement, 6/4/58

"The freedom of a citizen and the freedom of a religious believer are more than intimately related; they are mutually dependent. These two liberties give life to the heart of our Nation."
Remarks at the Cornerstone-Laying Ceremony for the Interchurch Center, New York City, New York, 10/12/58 [AUDIO]

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Sports

"My constant prayer, these days, as I start my backswing is, 'Oh, please let me swing slowly.' The trouble is that sometimes I wonder whether I swing at all; whether I am not strictly a chopper."
Letter, DDE to Bobby Jones, 7/28/51 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Box 63, Jones, Robert Tyre Jr.]

"The other day Aks and I went up to your ranch for a day's fishing. I cannot remember any day when we have had more fun on a stream. We had along with us three newspaper men and a few secret service people, many of whom had never seen a trout stream, so we did the thing up right by borrowing frying pans, bacon and corn meal from the wife of your rancher -- and we cooked an outdoor meal for the crowd. It was really quite a day."
Letter, DDE to Bal F. Swan, 8/15/53 [DDE's Papers as President, Name Series, Box 7, "Denver, 1953"]

"One of the things that I noticed in war was how difficult it was for our soldiers, at first, to realize that there are no rules to war. Our men were raised in sports, where a referee runs a football game, or an umpire a baseball game, and so forth."
Remarks at the Conference of the National Women's Advisory Committee on Civil Defense, 10/26/54 [AUDIO]

"And the other was this: the doctor did want to take off my leg because he thought it was necessary. But you must remember boys in those days were raised for two things: work, and then they made their play; and if you couldn't play baseball and box and play football, why, your life was ended. That was in our boyish minds."
Radio and Television Broadcast: "The Women Ask the President," 10/24/56

"But I think a life of raising prize cattle, going shooting two or three times a year, fishing in the summer, and interspersing the whole thing with some golf and bridge -- and whenever I felt like talking or writing, doing it with abandon and with no sense of responsibility whatsoever -- maybe such a life wouldn't be so bad."
Letter, DDE to Alfred M. Gruenther, 11/2/56 [The Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Volume XVII - The Presidency: The Middle Way, Part XI, Chapter 22]

"I have just realized that it is due to you, and to Mr. James Thomas and his staff of the Army Navy Country Club that the putting green here on the White House lawn is already in such excellent condition. I assure you that I get a great deal of pleasure and relaxation out of using the green in an occasional late afternoon hour . . ."
Letter, DDE to Rear Admiral John S. Phillips, 4/12/57 [DDE's Papers as President, President's Personal File, Box 10, 1-A-7 Golf (4)]

"Not only do I have a great love for the game of golf -- no matter how badly I play it -- but I have also the belief that through every kind of meeting, through every kind of activity to which we can bring together more often and more intimately peoples of our several countries, by that measure we will do something to solve the difficulties and the tensions that this poor old world seems nowadays to so much endure."
Remarks to Representatives of World Amateur Golf Team Championship Conference, 5/2/58 [AUDIO]

"Probably no one here knows I coached a football team -- a service team -- playing against Georgetown. I think it was in the fall of 1924 Lou Little was your coach, and he beat us. But it was a very happy circumstance, because it brought me the friendship of another man, Lou Little, who to this day remains my very warm associate and friend."
Remarks at the Dedication of the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service of Georgetown University, 10/13/58 [AUDIO]

"Well, a funny thing, there are three that I like all for the same reason, golf, fishing, and shooting, and I do because first, they take you into the fields. There is mild exercise, the kind that an older individual probably should have. And on top of it, it induces you to take at any one time 2 or 3 hours, if you can, where you are thinking of the bird or that ball or the wily trout. Now, to my mind it is a very healthful, beneficial kind of thing, and I do it whenever I get a chance, as you well know."
The President's Press Conference of 10/15/58 [AUDIO]

"Morale -- the will to win, the fighting heart -- are the honored hallmarks of the football coach and player. Likewise, they are characteristic of the enterprising executive, the successful troop leader, the established artist and the dedicated teacher and scientist."
Remarks at the First Football Hall of Fame Dinner, New York City, New York, 10/28/58 [AUDIO]

"I think of going back to the sports field again, and let's take a baseball game. Well, you have cracked out a grounder and you put in your last ounce of energy and you just happen to make first base. But you don't stop there. First base is the beginning. Now you call on all your alertness, your skill, your energy -- and you count on your teammates, you count on the people that are working with you. And the purpose of that getting on first base was to get you around to count a run."
Remarks at a Republican Men's Luncheon in Cleveland, Ohio 11/4/60 [AUDIO]

"You did not tell me what you are doing athletically just now but I do hope that if your arm comes along next spring you can get it in good shape to try out for the pitching spot on the varsity. However, if you don't make it then I suggest you take up golf which after all is the best game of all of them."
Letter, DDE to grandson David Eisenhower, 11/17/65 [DDE's Post Presidential Papers, Secretary's Series, Box 13, Eisenhower]

"But I noted with real satisfaction how well ex-footballers seemed to have leadership qualifications . . . I believe that football, perhaps more than any other sport, tends to instill in men the feeling that victory comes through hard -- almost slavish -- work, team play, self-confidence, and an enthusiasm that amounts to dedication."
At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends, page 16

War/Defense

"Humility must always be the portion of any man who receives acclaim earned in blood of his followers and sacrifices of his friends."
Guildhall Address, London, 6/12/45 [AUDIO]

"War is a grim, cruel business, a business justified only as a means of sustaining the forces of good against those of evil."
Transcription made for National War Fund at request of Col. Luther L. Hill, 9/11/45

"I hate war as only a soldier who has lived it can, only as one who has seen its brutality, its futility, its stupidity."
Address before the Canadian Club, Ottawa, Canada, 1/10/46

"Guns and tanks and planes are nothing unless there is a solid spirit, a solid heart, and great productiveness behind it."
Address to Economic Club of New York, Hotel Astor, 11/20/46

"War is mankind's most tragic and stupid folly; to seek or advise its deliberate provocation is a black crime against all men. Though you follow the trade of the warrior, you do so in the spirit of Washington -- not of Genghis Khan. For Americans, only threat to our way of life justifies resort to conflict."
Graduation Exercises at the United States Military Academy, 6/3/47

"Possibly my hatred of war blinds me so that I cannot comprehend the arguments they adduce. But, in my opinion, there is no such thing as a preventive war. Although this suggestion is repeatedly made, none has yet explained how war prevents war. Worse than this, no one has been able to explain away the fact that war creates the conditions that beget war."
Remarks at Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 10/19/50 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 196, Carnegie Institute]

"Because, therefore, we are defending a way of life, we must be respectful of that way of life as we proceed to the solution of our problem. We must not violate its principles and its precepts, and we must not destroy from within what we are trying to defend from without."
Speech before NATO Council, 11/26/51 [DDE's Pre-Pres. Papers, Box 197]

"Americans, indeed, all free men, remember that in the final choice a soldier's pack is not so heavy a burden as a prisoner's chains."
Inaugural Address, 1/20/53 [AUDIO]

"Each and all of us must summon to mind the words of Him whom we honor this Easter time: 'When a strong man, armed, keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace'."
Statement on the Fourth Anniversary of the Signing of the North Atlantic Treaty, 4/4/53

"Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed. This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children. The cost of one modern heavy bomber is this: a modern brick school in more than 30 cities. It is two electric power plants, each serving a town of 60,000 population. It is two fine, fully equipped hospitals. It is some 50 miles of concrete highway. We pay for a single fighter plane with a half million bushels of wheat. We pay for a single destroyer with new homes that could have housed more than 8,000 people. This, I repeat, is the best way of life to be found on the road. the world has been taking. This is not a way of life at all, in any true sense. Under the cloud of threatening war, it is humanity hanging from a cross of iron."
Address "The Chance for Peace" Delivered Before the American Society of Newspaper Editors, 4/16/53 [AUDIO]

"We do not keep security establishments merely to defend property or territory or rights abroad or at sea. We keep the security forces to defend a way of life."
Remarks to the Committee for Economic Development, 5/20/54 [AUDIO]

"A preventive war, to my mind, is an impossibility today. How could you have one if one of its features would be several cities lying in ruins, several cities where many, many thousands of people would be dead and injured and mangled, the transportation systems destroyed, sanitation implements and systems all gone? That isn't preventive war; that is war."
The President's News Conference of 8/11/54 [AUDIO]

"And the next thing is that every war is going to astonish you in the way it occurred, and in the way it is carried out."
The President's News Conference of 3/23/55

"I have spent my life in the study of military strength as a deterrent to war, and in the character of military armaments necessary to win a war. The study of the first of these questions is still profitable, but we are rapidly getting to the point that no war can be won."
Letter, DDE to Richard L. Simon, Simon and Schuster, Inc., 4/4/56 [DDE's Papers as President, DDE Diaries Series, Box 14, April 1956 Miscellaneous (5)]

"When we get to the point, as we one day will, that both sides know that in any outbreak of general hostilities, regardless of the element of surprise, destruction will be both reciprocal and complete, possibly we will have sense enough to meet at the conference table with the understanding that the era of armaments has ended and the human race must conform its actions to this truth or die."
Letter, DDE to Richard L. Simon, Simon and Schuster, Inc., 4/4/56 [DDE's Papers as President, DDE Diaries Series, Box 14, April 1956 Miscellaneous (5)]

"Arms alone can give the world no permanent peace, no confident security. Arms are solely for defense -- to protect from violent assault what we already have. They are only a costly insurance. They cannot add to human progress."
Address before the American Society of Newspaper Editors, Statler Hotel, Washington, DC, 4/21/56 [AUDIO]

"We know something of the cost of that war. We were in it from December seventh, '41, till August of '45. Ever since that time, we have been waging peace. It has had its ups and downs just as the war did."
The President's News Conference of 6/6/56

"The only way to win the next world war is to prevent it."
Address at a Rally in the Civic Auditorium, Seattle, Washington, 10/17/56

"We must be strong at home if we are going to be strong abroad. We understand that. So we want to be strong at home in our morale or in our spirit, we want to be strong intellectually, in our education, in our economy and, where necessary, militarily."
Radio and Television Broadcast: "The Women Ask the President," 10/24/56

"The hope of the world is that wisdom can arrest conflict between brothers. I believe that war is the deadly harvest of arrogant and unreasoning minds. And I find grounds for this belief in the wisdom literature of Proverbs. It says in effect this: Panic strikes like a storm and calamity comes like a whirlwind to those who hate knowledge and ignore their God."
Address at the Centennial Celebration Banquet of the National Education Association, 4/4/57 [AUDIO]

"First, separate ground, sea and air warfare is gone forever. If ever again we should be involved in war, we will fight it in all elements, with all services, as one single concentrated effort."
Special Message to the Congress on Reorganization of the Defense Establishment, 4/3/58

"Now this brings me to my main topic -- our military strength -- more specifically, how to stay strong against threat from outside, without undermining the economic health that supports our security."
Address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors and the International Press Institute, 4/17/58

"First, separate ground, sea and air warfare is gone forever. This lesson we learned in World War II. I lived that lesson in Europe. Others lived it in the Pacific. Millions of American veterans learned it well."
Address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors and the International Press Institute, 4/17/58

"Now all of us deplore this vast military spending. Yet, in the face of the Soviet attitude, we realize its necessity. Whatever the cost, America will keep itself secure. But in the process we must not, by our own hand, destroy or distort the American system. This we could do by useless overspending. I know one sure way to overspend. That is by overindulging sentimental attachments to outmoded military machines and concepts."
Address to the American Society of Newspaper Editors and the International Press Institute, 4/17/58

"I know something about that war, and I never want to see that history repeated. But, my fellow Americans, it certainly can be repeated if the peace-loving democratic nations again fearfully practice a policy of standing idly by while big aggressors use armed force to conquer the small and weak."
Radio and Television Report to the American People Regarding the Situation in the Formosa Straits, 9/11/58

"Any survey of the free world's defense structure cannot fail to impart a feeling of regret that so much of our effort and resources must be devoted to armaments."
Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union, 1/9/59

"But all history has taught us the grim lesson that no nation has ever been successful in avoiding the terrors of war by refusing to defend its rights -- by attempting to placate aggression."
Radio and Television Report to the American People: Security in the Free World, 3/16/59

"In this hope, among the things we teach to the young are such truths as the transcendent value of the individual and the dignity of all people, the futility and stupidity of war, its destructiveness of life and its degradation of human values."
Address at the Opening Session of the White House Conference on Children and Youth, College Park, Maryland, 3/27/60

"In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist."
Farewell Radio and Television Address to the American People, 1/17/61

"Morale is the greatest single factor in successful war."
Crusade in Europe, page 210

"Nothing is easy in war. Mistakes are always paid for in casualties and troops are quick to sense any blunder made by their commanders."
Crusade in Europe, page 450

"We need an adequate defense, but every arms dollar we spend above adequacy has a long-term weakening effect upon the nation and its security."
Waging Peace, page 622

RETURN TO TOP

Sours: http://www.eisenhowerlibrary.gov/eisenhowers/quotes

40 Stories From Women About Life in the Military

At War

From left: Rear Adm. Wendi Bryan Carpenter, retired, Lt. Col. Kimberly Ford, retired, Louise Graul Eisenbrandt and First Lt. Holly Harrington.
Lauren Katzenberg

By Lauren Katzenberg

Across the armed services, women made up 16 percent of the active-duty military as of 2017 — by branch, that number ranged from 8.4 percent within the Marine Corps to nearly 20 percent within the Air Force. Their representation is small and growing only marginally — in 2007, women in uniform made up 14.4 percent of the force — and their stories tend to be ignored in favor of legacies left by men who have shaped the narrative of service to country. Despite being overlooked, servicewomen are forging new career paths for themselves and the next generation as they enter jobs that were once closed to them. Consider pioneers like Capt. Rosemary Mariner, who was one of the first female Navy pilots in the 1970s and the first woman to lead a naval aviation squadron. She died in January from ovarian cancer, and her memory was honored last month with a flyover using all-female pilots. Or First Lt. Marina A. Hierl, who in 2018 became the first woman in the Marine Corps to command an infantry platoon.

[Sign up for the weekly At War newsletter to receive stories about duty, conflict and consequence.]

For International Women’s Day, The Times asked servicewomen and veterans to send us the stories that defined their experiences in the military. We left it to them whether to share their accomplishments, the challenges they faced or something unforgettable from their time in the military. Below is a selection of the more than 650 submissions we received.

Not Many Women Get to Do What I Do

Chief Petty Officer Stella Sierra-Chierici, Navy, 1999-Present

I am a jet engine mechanic on the F/A-18F Super Hornet. Not many women or men will ever get the opportunity to do what I do. It’s been tough at times throughout my career to have men tell me they will not work for me because I’m a woman. I say to them: “That’s O.K. You don’t have to follow me, but I will bring you along.”

Representing Witches’ Rights

Melissa R. Grayce, Air Force, 1988-98

When I was stationed in Germany, I was part of a group that wanted to use a recreation center to hold meetings for Wiccans. My letter to the editor, printed in Stars and Stripes, began a journey in which I became a representative for witches’ rights in the military. I still have my dog tags, which indicate my religion as Wiccan.

‘If They Were Going, I Was Going Too’

J Gayle Gaymon, Navy, 1972-75

I decided to enlist during the Vietnam War. My cousins, who were also my close friends, were being drafted and volunteering for other branches to avoid the Army draft. I was afraid that they would not return. So I decided that if they were going, I was going too.

The Whole Office Saw a Video of Me Naked

Petty Officer First Class Liberty Law, Navy, 2004-Present

In 2006, a male shipmate got into my barracks room and placed a camera in my bathroom and set it to record. I found it only after getting out of the shower. I took the camera to my male chief, whom I had known for only about a month. He assured me that he would get to the bottom of it. By lunchtime, the strange looks from everyone became obvious. Another shipmate told me that everyone in the company office had passed the camera around and saw the video of me naked, getting into and out of the shower.

I Didn’t Tell My Family I Was Enlisting

Staff Sgt. Ruth Navarro, Army, 2006-Present

I come from a Hispanic family and am the only woman in my family to have joined the Army. I didn’t tell them I was enlisting until the day I left. I was very young and was afraid they would try to talk me out of enlisting. I know I deeply hurt them, but thankfully, they’ve since come to support my decision.

A Lifetime of Firsts

Rear Adm. Wendi Bryan Carpenter, retired, Navy, 1977-2011

As some have said, if we put on our flight boots, we were often becoming a “first” at something. I was the first female Navy pilot to instruct in the T-44 Pegasus trainer for the advanced maritime prop pipeline. I was one of the first female instructors in the EC-130 aircraft for “Take Charge and Move Out” squadrons. I was also among the first mission commanders and maintenance check pilots. I was among the first female aviation assignment officers. I was the first female naval aviator to be promoted to the rank of one-star and then two-star admiral in the Navy. I was the first woman to command the Navy’s Warfare Development Command.

Being Beautiful and a Soldier

Staff Sgt. San Juanita Escobar, Texas Army National Guard, 2007-Present

I am currently Mrs. Texas Galaxy. When I was a National Guard recruiter, I came across many young women who said they couldn’t join because they were too “girlie.” So I started to compete in beauty pageants again to prove that you can still be and feel beautiful and follow any career path you want.

There Was Nowhere for Me to Sleep

Petty Officer First Class Jean Coriat, retired, Navy, 2004-18

In 2004, I had orders to be stationed on the U.S.S. Fitzgerald, which at the time was stationed in San Diego. When my ship finally pulled in, I found out I was the first female enlisted sailor to ever be stationed onboard. They didn’t even have a place for me to sleep.

I have served for 16 years in the National Guard, Reserves and on active duty, and I have become accustomed to being the only person in the room who looks like me. My greatest accomplishment was taking command and deploying over 125 troops into combat and bringing them all home safely to their loved ones. I don’t think there is anything that will ever compare to that.

‘I Smoked the Hell Out of Some of Those Men’

Nicola Hall, Army, 2000-5

In early 2002, I deployed to Afghanistan with the 21st Military Police Company (Airborne). The infantry was facing issues running combat patrols because the local women were hiding intelligence, weapons and high-value targets. It would have been cultural warfare for the male infantrymen to search these women. They needed a “high-speed female” to go on combat patrols and missions with them — and I was selected. My unit treated me no differently because I was a woman. I was referred to as “Hall.” I was a leader, a paratrooper and I smoked the hell out of some of those men.

A Misunderstood Job

Lesley-Anne Crumpton, Army, 2010-18

In 2015, I assisted with the integration of women into Ranger School for the first time in history. These efforts helped to change the combat exclusion ban on women in direct ground combat and ushered in the opening of all positions for women in the armed forces. My job was very controversial. I was part of a group of servicewomen attached to the three phases of Ranger School and walked the lanes with the Ranger students. Three women completed the course, and I personally got to watch one of them ace her leadership patrol and lead the pack like it was second nature.

Many Days, I Contemplated Suicide

Florence Shmorgoner, Marine Corps, 2014-Present

In 2015, I was sexually assaulted, and I waited until 2017 to report it because I was scared that I would not be believed or, worse, that I would be deemed a “troublemaker” in my platoon. It took about a year for the whole process to end. I was fortunate enough to go to counseling and see a psychologist and was found to have depression, anxiety disorder and PTSD — all stemming from the assault. I struggled with my self-worth more than I would like to admit. Many days, I contemplated suicide. Not because I felt like a burden but because the pain I felt every day was nearly unbearable. To this day, I still have nightmares of the assault. But I have found peace, which I have learned is all that matters.

My Daughter Re-enlisted With Me

Julie Ballard Squires, Navy, 1982-94

The day I re-enlisted, my daughter, Jessica, who was not quite 2, was in attendance and decided that she did not want to sit with my friend. My commanding officer told me to bring her up, so I did. We re-enlisted together, which was wholly fitting because I had recently gotten divorced, and Jessica was the reason I chose to stay on active duty.

My Drill Sergeant Looked Out for Me

Sgt. Joelene Schwebke, Army, 2012-Present

After graduating from college in 2008, I really wanted to serve in the military. Unfortunately, this meant I would have to hide that I am a lesbian. At the time, being openly gay in the service was forbidden. In 2011, my recruiter called me back and told me that the “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy had been repealed. I joined the Army in late 2011, and I was fortunate to have a wonderful drill sergeant, who made me feel comfortable during basic training and didn’t treat me differently. He made a point to let me know he wouldn’t tolerate any discrimination toward me.

In Puerto Rico, I Met a Woman Who Gave Birth During the Hurricane

Mary-Elizabeth Pratt, Coast Guard, 2015-2019

After Hurricane Maria, I was deployed to do recovery operations in eastern and central Puerto Rico. The amazing resilience of the Puerto Rican people couldn’t compare to anything I had ever seen before. There was a woman about my age (I was 22 at the time) with a very young baby. I asked her how old she was, and she said the infant was about 4 weeks old — meaning she had been born either during or in the days after the hurricane. I can't imagine having a baby without a doctor, running water or electricity. But there she was, showing me her beautiful baby girl.

Two Years Ago, I Finally Started Serving as My True Self

Staff Sgt. Kate Cole, Army, 2008-Present

I served in the Army for nine years as someone else. About two years ago, I was able to start serving openly as a transgender woman. I’ve faced discrimination since I’ve come out and lost some friends, but it has been worth it. I’ve gained a lot personally and professionally and have become part of a community that is open and willing to embrace change. I’ve had several soldiers tell me I’ve changed their views on not only transgender service members but also female service members being in combat arms.

I Deployed to Afghanistan and Left Behind My 8-Month-Old Daughter

Kristi Farmer-Hudson, Air Force, 2002-14

I deployed to Afghanistan for eight months when my first child was only eight months old. My family was stationed in Germany at the time, and because my husband was also active duty, he had to take our daughter to the United States, so our family could care for her. Our daughter spent four months in Georgia with my husband’s family and then five months in New Jersey with my parents. My mother brought her back to Germany when she was 18 months old.

Sailors Can Also Be Dancers

Shanon Lavin, Navy, 2014-18

While I was a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, I founded the first official dance team. The team has since doubled in size and performs at N.C.A.A. football and basketball games.

I Love the Marine Corps, but the Misogyny Has to Stop

Sgt. Virginia Jones, Marine Corps, 2014-Present

Despite being recognized as one of the best Marines in my unit, I’ve been stalked, harassed, doxxed and assaulted. Still, I’ve volunteered to teach young Marines early in their careers about how to treat all Marines with respect. I am very vocal about bringing awareness to the misogyny that is rampant within the military, especially the Marine Corps. I love Marines, but I do not love everything that myself and other Marines have been through.

I’ve Been Left Behind Because I Am a Woman

Tech. Sgt. Holly Ward, Air Force, 2006-Present

On all three of my overseas deployments, I was the only woman on my team. I lived separately, usually farther away from daily meeting points. I was left behind on major movements, forgotten about and asked to form up over an hour before my male colleagues, simply because I was a woman and lived elsewhere. On one deployment, my team forgot to notify me that we were leaving the country the next day. It turned out the announcement had been made in the male barracks only. I made the flight, but it still stung that I learned the information secondhand. I chose at that moment to dedicate my career to fighting for better inclusion.

‘You’ve Changed the Way I Feel About Women in the Army’

Megen Schlesinger, Army, 2008-19

I took company command within the Army Special Operations community, and many of the men under my command had never worked with a female soldier before. On my first day, I had to tell my new battalion commander that I had found out the day before that I was pregnant with my first child. Rather than make me feel obligated to apologize for the “inconvenience,” he congratulated me, without hesitation. As I navigated pregnancy and new motherhood, my team was supportive and embraced me as a member of their brotherhood. When my command came to a close, my command sergeant major, who has over 15 years in Special Forces, made a point to tell me, “Ma’am, you’ve changed the way I feel about women in the Army.”

I Started Over

Michelle Sacco, Coast Guard, 2006-Present

I originally wanted to be a rescue swimmer, but I was told by my recruiter that I was too small and wouldn’t be able to save anyone, despite my swimming abilities and career as a lifeguard before I enlisted. I was then misled into taking a job I didn’t want to do. After five years with no guidance or mentorship, I switched to an entirely new profession within the Coast Guard and started over. I am now preparing to take the test to make chief petty officer — a goal that I almost gave up.

I Was My Unit’s First Female Officer

Micki Duran, Marine Corps, 2006-17

I cherish my time in the Marine Corps, but there were many challenges, especially as the first female officer at my first unit. Once, during a meeting about a fun physical-fitness event we could put on for Marines, someone insinuated that I could be a “cheerleader.” Another time, I sent a researched and thoughtful email to my peers about how to address a group consisting of many men and one woman. Later, at an alcohol-fueled unit event, a peer and his wife both yelled over the bar noise that despite that email, I wasn’t a “bitch” after all.

‘Thank You for Paving the Way for Me’

Anne Krause, Air Force, 1990-99

I graduated from the United States Air Force Academy in 1990. Every time I met a woman who graduated from the academy in the previous decade, I thanked her for paving the way for me. It never really dawned on me that I was helping to blaze the trail for others until I went to an air show with my family many years later. I sought out the Thunderbirds’ executive officer (the position I once held) to say hello. The first thing she said to me was, “Thank you for paving the way for me.” That remark caught me by complete surprise. I remain inspired to climb with one hand while extending the other to help another woman up.

I Felt Like a Proud Parent

Sgt. First Class Winnie Moore, Army Reserve, 1999-2003; Army, 2003-5, 2007-Present

I remember one day my company all took the Army’s physical-fitness test and a few people failed it. One woman could not do a single push-up or sit-up, but she passed the run. Usually these types of failures are sent home. As a drill sergeant, I asked for her to be placed in my platoon and said I would work with her. She went from zero to 25 push-ups and 65 sit-ups. I truly felt like a proud parent.

Leading the Way for Other L.G.B.T. Service Members

Sgt. Ashley Romaniello, Marine Corps, 2013-Present

I was originally kicked out of the Marine Corps for being openly gay. I returned in 2013 after the “don’t ask, don't tell” policy was repealed, and I redid recruit training all over again. I was part of the second class of women to graduate as an infantry rifleman. I choose to live and work in a very open and honest way, so I can pave the way for other L.G.B.T. service members. If I can protect even just one, I’ve done something meaningful.

I Remember the Feeling of Victory When I Made It Through the Day

Capt. Helen Perry, Army, 2011-16; Army Reserve, 2016-Present

I remember dropping my phone when they called to tell me that my husband, Matt, an active-duty Marine, had a seizure and his heart had stopped — the result of a traumatic brain injury he received in Afghanistan. I remember the first time I watched him seize and the color of his lips as they turned an ominous shade of blue. I held his hand, despite the fact that he couldn’t remember my name, or his name, or the year, or his family. The doctors told me his memory would come back (it never did). I remember the feeling of resentment as my senior leader advised me to get a divorce when I asked for a compassionate reassignment, so that I could get Matt to a hospital capable of taking care of him. I remember the frustration I felt as the Department of Veterans Affairs told me I didn’t qualify for the same benefits as civilian spouses do because I was active duty. I remember the feeling of desperation when I was so burned out and depressed that I didn’t think I could handle another day. I remember the feeling of victory when I made it through that day, and then the next, and all the hard days after that.

Learning to Be the First

Lt. Col. Kimberly Ford, retired, Air Force, 1990-2016

I was the first African-American woman to fly the C-17 Globemaster in the Air Force. I earned the Air Medal for support of operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Bosnia and Kosovo. The biggest challenge I faced was being among the fewer than 1 percent of Air Force pilots who are African-American women. I had mentors from all walks of life throughout my career who have supported me and encouraged me, including Lt. Col. Bill Holloman, a member of the Tuskegee Airmen, the famed African-American aviators from World War II.

We Had an Unbroken Bond After That Night

Staff Sgt. Nakita Goad, Marine Corps, 2010-Present

Sept. 14, 2012, will always be a day I remember because my base, Camp Bastion, was attacked and every Marine dropped their wrenches, grabbed their rifles and brought the fight to the enemy. I’ve never been more proud of those Marines than I was on that day. After that, it seemed as though we all had this unbroken bond that we would be able to talk about only with one another. It’s not much, but it’s something I won’t forget.

I Wish I Stayed In Longer

Susie Spriggs, Air Force, 1973-75

I was in the first wave of female aircraft mechanics to arrive at Fairchild Air Force Base. One of my biggest regrets in life is getting out so soon. I was only a mechanic for a year when they phased out the aircraft I was trained on, so I went into administration.

You’re Labeled a Liar

Kristi Anthony (Simonis), Marine Corps, 2010-14

I unfortunately didn’t accomplish much in the military. I was treated pretty terribly in my unit. Hazing and predation were prevalent. Being a woman in the military is basically signing a sexual assault/harassment contract. It will be constant. You will be mistreated, judged, harassed or assaulted because you have a vagina in a world full of penises. One “mistake” can take away years of work that you’ve put in. I say “mistake,” in quotation marks, because that “mistake” could be reporting sexual assault that actually happens. Then you’re labeled a snitch. The man who assaults you gets to brag about it, while you’re the liar.

I Designed the Marine Corps Reserve’s Centennial Campaign

Gunnery Sgt. Elizabeth Inglese, Marine Corps, 2000-12; Marine Corps Reserve, 2013-Present

I was the sole graphic designer for the 100th anniversary commemoration of the Marine Corps Reserve. My design work appeared across the United States, including in Times Square, in the National World War II Museum in New Orleans, at the Navy Memorial Museum in Washington, as a permanent exhibit installed at the Pentagon and as the official donation box design for the 2016 Toys for Tots campaign.

It Was My Duty to Do the Right Thing

Maj. Sharon Waddell, retired, Army, 1983-2003

At my first duty station, I was told that I shouldn’t be there and that I was taking a slot from a man who was trying to support his family. A wife once yelled at me not to sleep with her husband when we were in the field. I wanted to tell her not to worry — had she seen how disgusting her husband was when he was in the field? At times I had to thwart the advances of senior officers and others, while also fighting the perception that I was a lesbian. When I reported a commanding officer for sexually harassing a soldier in front of the entire company, I was removed from my job, while the offender received a letter of concern in his restricted file. I still felt it was my duty to do the right thing, no matter the consequences.

I Met My Spouse in Afghanistan

Col. Janet Holliday, retired, Army, 1998-2018

I enlisted in the Army in 1988 as a broadcast journalist and was commissioned as an officer in 1992. I served both in the Signal Corps and the Adjutant General Corps. I was the first female commander of the garrison at Carlisle Barracks in Pennsylvania and the first female commander of the Army’s Marketing and Engagement Brigade at Fort Knox in Kentucky. In Kabul, Afghanistan, in 2012, I met my future spouse, Col. Ginger Wallace of the Air Force. At the time of our marriage in 2015, we were the highest-ranking dual-military couple to enter into a same-sex marriage.

‘Women Don’t Belong in Combat’

Ashleigh Bryant Byrnes, Marine Corps, 2004-11

I was embedded with Marines in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, as a combat correspondent in August 2009. As we were about to head into a town to start patrolling and clearing compounds, a young lieutenant walked up to me and said, “You know, women don’t belong in combat.” I remember thinking: “Wow, what an awesome time to bring this up. How about we just all focus on doing our jobs?” I put it behind me and did what I was there to do, putting down my camera and picking up my rifle when the need arose.

I Was One of Six Female Bomb-Disposal Technicians in the Marines

Michelle Kuranishi, Marine Corps, 2000-12

I was one of six female bomb-disposal technicians in the Marine Corps. On my first deployment, I was pulled off my team because, as I was told, “Ramadi is too dangerous for a woman.” I was reassigned to Al Taqaddum, which didn’t turn out to be that much safer. The technician and corpsman on the team I was pulled off were killed in a blast. Then, about three weeks later, my own partner was killed. We’d been working on disarming a roadside bomb when it detonated and destroyed our robot. My partner went to disarm it, and a second blast killed him. Four days after that, our security team leader was killed. I completed that tour, devastated and traumatized, then returned a year later as a team leader myself. That deployment was blessedly uneventful.

The Job of a Deep-Sea Diver

Tenley Lozano, Coast Guard, 2009-14

I served in the Coast Guard for five years, first as a shipboard engineer and then as a deep-sea diver. My first unit conducted counternarcotic missions in the Eastern Pacific. I was the first American citizen to go onboard a Colombian narcotics submarine and evaluate its safety, because of my proven willingness to fit into tight and dangerous spaces. Standing in the entrance, I realized there was no way of seeing what was happening outside the sub once the watertight hatch above was sealed. I began to understand why the four men had locked themselves inside the vessel the night before, believing that the Coast Guard boarding team was actually a group of competing drug smugglers that had come to kill them. The boarding team would later remove one bale of cocaine from the narco-sub. The vessel was then sunk with most of the estimated six tons of cocaine onboard, so it wouldn’t be a hazard to navigation.

I Met My Husband in Guam

Suzanna York, Navy, 1996-2001

While I was in the Navy, my orders changed because the ship I had been assigned to had no female berthing. I instead was sent to a squadron on Guam, where I met my husband of 21 years.

Serving My Country Through Music

First Lt. Elizabeth Elliott, Army, 2016-Present

I grew up watching my sister, an Air Force pilot, constantly deploy to dangerous places. I wanted to do my part in serving my country, but I never knew how. I earned my bachelor’s and master’s in music performance and conducting, and I ended up being invited to audition in Washington and won the audition. I’m now the fifth female commissioned music officer in the Army.

I Took Off My Helmet So They Could See I Was a Girl Too

Lt. Kimberly Herm, Navy, 2009-Present

I was deployed to Kunar Province, Afghanistan, in 2012. As a civil engineer, my job was to oversee construction projects like schools, roads, bridges and canals. Sometimes we would visit the schools while classes were going on, and the girls would be scared and try to hide. When this happened, I would take off my helmet and sunglasses so they could see I was a girl too. Their reaction would immediately change, and they would all focus on my every move, looking away, laughing and blushing if I looked at them. I have always hoped that my presence there, as a female engineer trying to improve their schools, had a positive impact on these young girls.


Lauren Katzenberg is the editor of the The Times Magazine’s At War channel. For more stories about the experiences and costs of war, sign up for the weekly At War newsletter.

Sours: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/08/magazine/women-military-stories.html
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Ernest King

US Navy Admiral (FADM), Chief of Naval Operations

Ernest Joseph King (23 November 1878 – 25 June 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH) and Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) during World War II. As COMINCH-CNO, he directed the United States Navy's operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the United States Navy's second most senior officer in World War II after Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, who served as Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief.

Born in Lorain, Ohio, King served in the Spanish–American War while still attending the United States Naval Academy. He received his first command in 1914, leading the destroyerUSS Terry in the occupation of Veracruz. During World War I, he served on the staff of Vice Admiral Henry T. Mayo, the commander of the United States Atlantic Fleet. After the war, King served as head of the Naval Postgraduate School, commanded a submarine squadron, and served as Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. After a period on the Navy's General Board, King became commander of the Atlantic Fleet in February 1941.

Shortly after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, King was appointed as Commander in Chief of the United States Fleet. In March 1942, King succeeded Harold Stark as Chief of Naval Operations. In December 1944, King became the second admiral to be promoted to fleet admiral. King left active duty in December 1945 and died in 1956.

Early life[edit]

King was born in Lorain, Ohio, the son of James Clydesdale King and Elizabeth Keam King.[2] King graduated from what is now Lorain High School as valedictorian in the Class of 1897; his commencement speech was entitled "Values of Adversity". King attended the United States Naval Academy from 1897 until 1901, graduating fourth in his class. During his senior year at the academy, he attained the rank of midshipman lieutenant commander, the highest midshipman ranking at that time.[3]

Surface ships[edit]

While still at the Naval Academy, King served on the cruiserUSS San Francisco during the Spanish–American War. After graduation, he served as a junior officer on the survey shipUSS Eagle, the battleshipsUSS Illinois, USS Alabama and USS New Hampshire, and the cruiser USS Cincinnati.[4]

King returned to shore duty at Annapolis in 1912. He received his first command, the destroyerUSS Terry in 1914, participating in the United States occupation of Veracruz.[5] He then moved on to a more modern destroyer, USS Cassin.

During World War I, King served on the staff of Vice Admiral Henry T. Mayo, the Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet. As such, he was a frequent visitor to the Royal Navy and occasionally saw action as an observer on board British ships. It appears that his Anglophobia developed during this period,[6] although the reasons are unclear. He was awarded the Navy Cross "for distinguished service in the line of his profession as assistant chief of staff of the Atlantic Fleet."[7] It was after World War I that King adopted his signature manner of wearing his uniform with a breast-pocket handkerchief under his ribbons (see image, top right). Officers serving alongside the Royal Navy did this in emulation of Admiral David Beatty. King was the last to continue this tradition.[8]

After the war, King, now a captain, became head of the Naval Postgraduate School. Along with Captains Dudley Wright Knox and William S. Pye, King prepared a report on naval training that recommended changes to naval training and career paths. Most of the report's recommendations were accepted and became policy.[9]

Submarines[edit]

Before World War II, King served in the surface fleet. From 1923 to 1925, he held several posts associated with submarines. As a junior captain, the best sea command he was able to secure in 1921 was the stores shipUSS Bridge. The relatively new submarine force offered the prospect of advancement.[10]

King attended a short training course at the Naval Submarine Base New London before taking command of a submarine division, flying his commodore's pennant from USS S-20. He never earned his Submarine Warfare insignia (dolphins), although he did propose and design the now-familiar dolphin insignia. In 1923, he took over command of the Submarine Base itself.[11] During this period, he directed the salvage of USS S-51, earning the first of his three Navy Distinguished Service Medals.

Aviation[edit]

In 1926, Rear Admiral William A. Moffett, Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer), asked King if he would consider a transfer to naval aviation. King accepted the offer and took command of the aircraft tender USS Wright with additional duties as senior aide on the staff of Commander, Air Squadrons, Atlantic Fleet.[12]

That year, the United States Congress passed a law (10 USC Sec. 5942) requiring commanders of all aircraft carriers, seaplane tenders, and aviation shore establishments be qualified naval aviators or naval aviation observers. King therefore reported to Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, for aviator training in January 1927. He was the only captain in his class of twenty, which also included Commander Richmond K. Turner. King received his wings as Naval Aviator No. 3368 on 26 May 1927 and resumed command of Wright. For a time, he frequently flew solo, flying down to Annapolis for weekend visits to his family, but his solo flying was cut short by a naval regulation prohibiting solo flights for aviators aged 50 or over.[13] However, the history chair at the Naval Academy from 1971 to 1976 disputes this assertion, stating that after King soloed, he never flew alone again.[14] His biographer described his flying ability as "erratic" and quoted the commander of the squadron with which he flew as asking him if he "knew enough to be scared?"[15] Between 1926 and 1936 he flew an average of 150 hours annually.[16]

King commanded Wright until 1929, except for a brief interlude overseeing the salvage of USS S-4. He then became Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics under Moffett. The two fell out over certain elements of Bureau policy, and he was replaced by Commander John Henry Towers and transferred to command of Naval Station Norfolk.[17]

On 20 June 1930, King became captain of the carrier USS Lexington—then one of the largest aircraft carriers in the world—which he commanded for the next two years.[18] During his tenure aboard the Lexington, King was the commanding officer of notable science fiction author Robert A. Heinlein, then Ensign Heinlein, prior to his medical retirement from the US Navy. During that time, Ensign Heinlein dated one of King's daughters.[19]

Navy’s flying flagship. Rear Admiral Ernest J. King, completing his tour of duty as chief of the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics at Washington, D.C. on June 8, 1936

In 1932, King attended the Naval War College. In a war college thesis entitled "The Influence of National Policy on Strategy", King expounded on the theory that America's weakness was Representative democracy:

Historically ... it is traditional and habitual for us to be inadequately prepared. This is the combined result of a number factors, the character of which is only indicated: democracy, which tends to make everyone believe that he knows it all; the preponderance (inherent in democracy) of people whose real interest is in their own welfare as individuals; the glorification of our own victories in war and the corresponding ignorance of our defeats (and disgraces) and of their basic causes; the inability of the average individual (the man in the street) to understand the cause and effect not only in foreign but domestic affairs, as well as his lack of interest in such matters. Added to these elements is the manner in which our representative (republican) form of government has developed as to put a premium on mediocrity and to emphasise the defects of the electorate already mentioned.[20]

Following the death of Admiral Moffet in the crash of the airship USS Akron on 4 April 1933, King became Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, and was promoted to rear admiral on 26 April 1933.[21] As bureau chief, King worked closely with the chief of the Bureau of Navigation, Rear Admiral William D. Leahy, to increase the number of naval aviators.[22]

At the conclusion of his term as bureau chief in 1936, King became Commander, Aircraft, Base Force, at Naval Air Station North Island, California.[23] After surviving the crash of his Douglas XP3D transport on 8 February 1937,[24] he was promoted to vice admiral on 29 January 1938 on becoming Commander, Aircraft, Battle Force – at the time one of only three vice admiral billets in the US Navy.[25] Among his accomplishments was to corroborate Admiral Harry E. Yarnell's 1932 war game findings in 1938 by staging his own successful simulated naval air raid on Pearl Harbor, showing that the base was dangerously vulnerable to aerial attack, although he was taken no more seriously than his contemporary until December 7, 1941 when the Imperial Japanese Navyattacked the base by air for real.[26]

King hoped to be appointed as either Chief of Naval Operations or Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, but on 15 June 1939, he was posted to the General Board, an elephants' graveyard where senior officers spent the time remaining before retirement. A series of extraordinary events would alter this outcome.[27]

World War II[edit]

See also: United States Navy in World War II and Naval history of World War II

King's career was resurrected by his friend, Admiral Harold "Betty" Stark, the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) who realized King's talent for command was being wasted on the General Board. Stark appointed him Commander, Atlantic Squadron, in 1940. In December 1940 King said the US was already at war with Germany.[28] King was promoted to admiral in February 1941 as Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANT). On 30 December, he became Commander in Chief, United States Fleet (COMINCH). (Admiral Husband Kimmel held this position during the attack on Pearl Harbor.)[29] On 18 March 1942, King was appointed CNO, relieving Stark, becoming the only officer to hold this combined command. After turning 64 on 23 November 1942, he wrote President Franklin D. Roosevelt to say he had reached mandatory retirement age. Roosevelt replied with a note reading, "So what, old top?".[30] In January 1941 King issued an Atlantic Fleet directive encouraging officers to delegate and avoid micromanagement which is still cited widely in today's armed forces.[31][32]

Historian Michael Gannon blamed King for the heavy American losses during the Second Happy Time. Others however blamed the belated institution of a convoy system, partly due to a severe shortage of suitable escort vessels, without which convoys were seen as more vulnerable than lone ships. King has been heavily criticized for ignoring British advice regarding convoys and up-to-date British intelligence on U-boat operations in the Atlantic, leading to high losses among the US Merchant Marine.[33][34][35]

On 17 December 1944, King was promoted to the newly created rank of fleet admiral, the second of four men in the U.S. Navy to hold that rank during World War II. He left active duty on 15 December 1945, but officially remained in the Navy, as five-star officers were to be given active duty pay for life. On the same day that King left active duty, Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz succeeded him as Chief of Naval Operations.

Retirement and death[edit]

After retiring, King lived in Washington, D.C. He was active in his early post-retirement, serving as president of the Naval Historical Foundation from 1946 to 1949, and he wrote the foreword to and assisted in the writing of Battle Stations! Your Navy In Action, a photographic history book depicting the U.S. Navy's operations in World War II that was published in 1946. King suffered a debilitating stroke in 1947, and subsequent ill-health ultimately forced him to stay in naval hospitals at Bethesda, Maryland, and at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine. King briefly served as an advisor to the Secretary of the Navy in 1950, but he was unable to return to duty in any long-term capacity as his health would not permit it. King wrote an autobiography, Fleet Admiral King: A Naval Record, which he published in 1952.

King died of a heart attack in Kittery on 25 June 1956, at the age of 77.[36] After lying in state at the National Cathedral in Washington, King was buried in the United States Naval Academy Cemetery at Annapolis, Maryland. His wife, who survived him, was buried beside her husband in 1969.

Analysis[edit]

Ernest King served 55 years on active duty in the United States Navy, one of the longest careers on record for that service. King is the only man to have ever held the posts of Chief of Naval Operations and Commander in Chief, United States Fleet simultaneously, making him one of the most powerful U.S. Navy officers ever to serve. As a naval officer, King was highly intelligent and extremely capable, but controversial and difficult to serve with, over, or under. King's blunt honesty and his short temper made him numerous enemies, leaving a mixed legacy. For example, General Dwight Eisenhower complained to his private diary that Admiral King, "is an arbitrary, stubborn type, with not too much brains and a tendency toward bullying his juniors."[37]

Pointing to King's five-and-a-half decades in the Navy and his many accomplishments as one of the highest-ranked Allied military leaders of World War II, some consider King one of the greatest admirals of the 20th century;[38] others, however, point out he never commanded ships or fleets at sea in wartime, and that his Anglophobia led him to make decisions costing many Allied lives.[39]

Others see his ability to counter both British and U.S. Army influence on American World War II strategy as indicative of strong leadership, and praise his sometimes outspoken recognition of the strategic importance of the Pacific War.[38] His instrumental role in the decisive Guadalcanal Campaign has earned him admirers in the United States and Australia, and some consider him an organizational genius.[40] He was demanding and authoritarian, and could be abrasive and abusive to subordinates. King was widely respected for his ability, but not liked by many of the officers he commanded.

Military historian John Ray Skates described King as: "perhaps the most disliked Allied leader of World War II", adding that only "British Field Marshal Montgomery may have had more enemies ... King also loved parties and often drank to excess. Apparently, he reserved his charm for the wives of fellow naval officers. On the job, he seemed always to be angry or annoyed."[41]

There was a famous tongue-in-cheek remark about King, made by one of his daughters and repeated by Navy personnel at the time, that "he is the most even-tempered person in the United States Navy. He is always in a rage." Franklin D. Roosevelt once described King as a man who "shaves every morning with a blow torch."[42]

It is commonly reported when King was called to be COMINCH, he remarked, "When they get in trouble they send for the sons-of-bitches." However, when he was later asked if he had said this, King replied he had not, but would have if he had thought of it.[43] On the other hand, King's view of press relations for the US Navy in World War II is well documented. When asked to state a public relations policy for the Navy, King replied "Don't tell them anything. When it's over, tell them who won."[44]

Response to Operation Drumbeat[edit]

At the start of US involvement in World War II, blackouts on the U.S. eastern seaboard were not in effect, and commercial ships traveling the coastal waterways were not travelling under convoy. King's critics attribute the delay in implementing these measures to his Anglophobia, as the convoys and seaboard blackouts were British proposals, and King was supposedly loth to have his much-beloved U.S. Navy adopt any ideas from the Royal Navy. He also refused, until March 1942, the loan of British convoy escorts when the Americans had only a handful of suitable vessels. He was, however, aggressive in driving his destroyer captains to attack U-boats in defense of convoys and in planning counter-measures against German surface raiders, even before the formal declaration of war in December 1941.[45]

Instead of convoys, King had the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard perform regular anti-submarine patrols, but these patrols followed a regular schedule. U-boat commanders learned the schedule, and coordinated their attacks to these schedules. Leaving the lights on in coastal towns back-lit merchant ships for the U-boats. As a result, there was a period of disastrous shipping losses—two million tons lost in January and February 1942 alone, and urgent pressure applied from both sides of the Atlantic. However, King resisted the use of convoys because he was convinced the Navy lacked sufficient escort vessels to make them effective. The formation of convoys with inadequate escort would also result in increased port-to-port time, giving the enemy concentrated groups of targets rather than single ships proceeding independently. Furthermore, blackouts were a politically sensitive issue—coastal cities resisted, citing the loss of tourism revenue.[citation needed]

It was not until May 1942 that King marshalled resources—small cutters and private vessels that he had previously scorned—to establish a day-and-night interlocking convoy system running from Newport, Rhode Island, to Key West, Florida.[46]

By August 1942, the submarine threat to shipping in U.S. coastal waters had been contained. The U-boats' "second happy time" ended, with the loss of seven U-boats and a dramatic reduction in shipping losses. The same effect occurred when convoys were extended to the Caribbean. Despite the ultimate defeat of the U-boat, some of King's initial decisions in this theatre could be viewed as flawed. His bigotry clouded his judgment, leading to excessive loss of life, ships and war materials. And given the existential threat posed to the United Kingdom by the war in the Atlantic, it may not be an overstatement to say that King's Anglophobia, poor judgment and stubbornness put the entire outcome of WWII in serious jeopardy.[47]

Alternatively, as regrettable as the loss of many merchant marines and ships in the first six months of 1942 was, it did not threaten the outcome of WWII because it did not include any troops or armaments and did not make a major difference in the amount of products or fuel shipped to Europe and the USSR. A review of US Merchant Marine shipping data clearly shows the proportion of tonnage lost related to the total amount transported never exceeded 3%.[48] Note is made of the urgency of balancing Navy responsibilities on two large oceans, including impending attacks by the Imperial Navy of Japan.

Other decisions[edit]

Other decisions widely regarded as questionable were his resistance to the employment of long-range USAAFB-24 Liberator on Atlantic maritime patrols, thus allowing the U-boats a safe area in the middle of the Atlantic, the so-called "Atlantic Gap"; the denial of adequate numbers of landing craft to the Allied invasion of Europe; and the reluctance to permit the Royal Navy's Pacific Fleet any role in the Pacific. In all of these instances, circumstances forced a re-evaluation or he was overruled. It has also been pointed out that King did not, in his post-war report to the Secretary of the Navy, accurately describe the slowness of the American response to the off-shore U-boat threat in early 1942.[49]

Employment of long-range maritime patrol aircraft in the Atlantic was complicated by inter-service squabbling over command and control (the aircraft belonged to the Army; the mission was the Navy's; Secretary of WarStimson and General Arnold initially refused to release the aircraft).[50] This was later mitigated in 1942 and into 1943 by the assignment of Navy-owned and operated PB4Y-1 Liberators, and by late 1944, the PB4Y-2 Privateer aircraft. Although King had certainly used the allocation of ships to the European Theatre as leverage to get the necessary resources for his Pacific objectives, he provided (at General Marshall's request) an additional month's production of landing craft to support Operation Overlord. Moreover, the priority for landing craft construction was changed, a factor outside King's remit. The level of sea lift for Overlord turned out to be more than adequate.

The employment of British and Empire forces in the Pacific was a political matter. The measure was forced on Churchill by the British Chiefs of Staff, not only to re-establish British presence in the region, but to mitigate any impression in the U.S. that the British were doing nothing to help defeat Japan. King was adamant that naval operations against Japan remain 100% American, and angrily resisted the idea of a British naval presence in the Pacific at the Quadrant Conference in late 1944, citing (among other things) the difficulty of supplying additional naval forces in the theatre (for much the same reason, Hap Arnold resisted the offer of RAF units in the Pacific). In addition, King (along with Marshall) had continually resisted operations that would assist the British agenda in reclaiming or maintaining any part of her pre-war colonial holdings in the Pacific or the Eastern Mediterranean. Roosevelt, however, overruled him and, despite King's reservations, the British Pacific Fleet accounted itself well against Japan in the last months of the war.[51]

General Hastings Ismay, chief of staff to Winston Churchill, described King as:[52]

... tough as nails and carried himself as stiffly as a poker. He was blunt and stand-offish, almost to the point of rudeness. At the start, he was intolerant and suspicious of all things British, especially the Royal Navy; but he was almost equally intolerant and suspicious of the American Army. War against Japan was the problem to which he had devoted the study of a lifetime, and he resented the idea of American resources being used for any other purpose than to destroy the Japanese. He mistrusted Churchill's powers of advocacy, and was apprehensive that he would wheedle President Roosevelt into neglecting the war in the Pacific.

Contrary to British opinion, King was a strong believer in the "Germany first" strategy. However, his natural aggression did not permit him to leave resources idle in the Atlantic that could be utilized in the Pacific, especially when "it was doubtful when—if ever—the British would consent to a cross-Channel operation".[53] King once complained that the Pacific deserved 30% of Allied resources but was getting only 15%. When, at the Casablanca Conference, he was accused by Field-Marshal Sir Alan Brooke of favoring the Pacific war, the argument became heated. The combative General Joseph Stilwell wrote: "Brooke got nasty, and King got good and sore. King almost climbed over the table at Brooke. God, he was mad. I wished he had socked him."[54]

Following Japan's defeat at the Battle of Midway, King advocated (with Roosevelt's tacit consent) the invasion of Guadalcanal. When General Marshall resisted this line of action (as well as who would command the operation), King stated the Navy (and Marines) would then carry out the operation by themselves, and instructed Admiral Nimitz to proceed with preliminary planning. King eventually won the argument, and the invasion went ahead with the backing of the Joint Chiefs. It was ultimately successful, and was the first time the Japanese lost ground during the war. For his attention to the Pacific Theatre he is highly regarded by some Australian war historians.[55]

In spite of (or perhaps partly because of) the fact the two men did not get along,[56] the combined influence of King and General Douglas MacArthur increased the allocation of resources to the Pacific War.[57]

Another controversy involving King was his role in the court-martial of Captain Charles B. McVay III, commander of USS Indianapolis, possibly as retaliation for being reprimanded by McVay's father much earlier. King, effectively, ordered that McVay be court-martialed and convicted, to the dismay of Admiral Nimitz and others. The verdict of the court-martial was much later annulled.[58] In his book Abandon Ship, author Richard F. Newcomb posits a motive for Admiral King's ordering McVay's court-martial. According to Captain McVay III's father, Admiral Charles B McVay Jr., "'King never forgot a grudge". King had been a junior officer under the command of McVay's father when King and other officers sneaked some women aboard a ship. Admiral McVay had a letter of reprimand placed in King's record for that. "Now," he raged, "King's used [my son] to get back at me."[59]

Personal life[edit]

While at the Naval Academy, King met Martha Rankin ("Mattie") Egerton, a Baltimoresocialite, whom he married in a ceremony at the Chapel at West Point on 10 October 1905.[60][61] King and Egerton had six daughters, Claire, Elizabeth, Florence, Martha, Eleanor and Mildred; and a son, Ernest Joseph King, Jr. Ernest Jr also served in navy, retiring at the rank of Commander.[62] King was a practicing Episcopalian, a faith he shared with his wife and made a point of raising all of their children in. Despite this, King purportedly hated being around his family and developed a reputation as heavy drinker and gambler. King was a notorious lothario, who allegedly slept with the wives of subordinates.[63]

Dates of rank[edit]

King never held the rank of lieutenant (junior grade) although, for administrative reasons, his service record annotates his promotion to both lieutenant (junior grade) and lieutenant on the same day.

All DOR referenced from Master of Sea Power: A Biography of Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, pp. xii–xv.

Awards and decorations[edit]

Foreign awards[edit]

King was also the recipient of several foreign awards and decorations (shown in order of acceptance and if more than one award for a country, placed in order of precedence):

Legacy[edit]

  • The guided missile destroyerUSS King was named in his honor.
  • Two public schools in his hometown of Lorain, Ohio, have been named after him: (Admiral King High School) until it was merged with the city's other public high school to form Lorain High School in 2010, and Admiral King Elementary School.
  • In 2011, Lorain dedicated a Tribute Space at Admiral King's birthplace, and new elementary school in Lorain will bear his name.
  • In 1956, schools located on the U.S. Naval Bases and Air Stations were given names of U.S. heroes of the past E.J. King High School, the Department of Defense high school on Sasebo Naval Base, in Japan, is named for him.
  • The dining hall at the U.S. Naval Academy, King Hall, is named after him.
  • The auditorium at the Naval Postgraduate School, King Hall, is also named after him.
  • Recognizing King's great personal and professional interest in maritime history, the Secretary of the Navy named in his honor an academic chair at the Naval War College to be held with the title of the Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History.
  • King Drive at Arlington National Cemetery is named in honor of Fleet Admiral King.
  • One of the two major living quarters at Officer Training Command, Newport, RI is named King Hall in his honor.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^U.S. officers holding five-star rank never retire; they draw full active duty pay for life.[1]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^Tucker, Spencer C. (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1685. ISBN .
  2. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, p. 3.
  3. ^Morison, The Battle of the Atlantic, p. 51.
  4. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, pp. 10–12, 15–41.
  5. ^Martin Folly, Historical Dictionary of US Diplomacy
  6. ^Gannon, Operation Drumbeat, p. 168.
  7. ^"Full Text Citations For Award of The Navy Cross to Members of the US Navy World War I". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.
  8. ^Young, Frank Pierce. "Pearl Harbor History: Building The Way To A Date Of Infamy". Retrieved 25 May 2013.
  9. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, pp. 54–55.
  10. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, p. 58.
  11. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, pp. 62–64.
  12. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 187.
  13. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, pp. 190–193.
  14. ^Huston, John W. (2002). Maj. Gen. John W. Huston, USAF (ed.). American Airpower Comes of Age: General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold's World War II Diaries. Air University Press. p. 359. ISBN .
  15. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, p. 76.
  16. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 228.
  17. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 211.
  18. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 214.
  19. ^William H. Patterson, Robert A. Heinlein: A Learning Curve'
  20. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, pp. 226–227.
  21. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, pp. 240–242.
  22. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 249.
  23. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 266.
  24. ^Morton, Gerard T. (1985). "Sixty Seconds to Live". Proceedings. United States Naval Institute. 111 (9): 70–72.
  25. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 279.
  26. ^Rebekah. "The Day that Will Live in Infamy ... but it didn't have to". The USS Flier Project. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  27. ^King and Whitehill, A Naval Record, p. 295.
  28. ^"Secret Revealed: America was at War with Nazi Germany Before 1941". December 2020.
  29. ^"HyperWar: U.S. Navy at War, 1941-1945 (Off. Reports to SecNav from CNO) [First Report]".
  30. ^David B. Woolner, Warren F. Kimball, David Reynolds: FDR's World: War, Peace, and Legacies (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), p. 70.
  31. ^"Navy Leader Development Framework"(PDF). U.S. Navy. May 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  32. ^Holmes, James (20 June 2017). "Memorandum for ACC Commanders: Leadership, Initiative, and War"(PDF). U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  33. ^Ryan, Timothy J. and Copes, Jan M. (1994) To Die Gallantly – The Battle of the Atlantic. Westview Press, Chapter 7.
  34. ^Robb-Webb, Jon (2001). "Convoy", in Richard Holmes (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Military History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  35. ^Kupfer, Charles (2012) Indomitable Will: Turning Defeat into Victory from Pearl Harbor to Midway. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 171. ISBN 978-1441186638
  36. ^Borneman. p. 463.
  37. ^John Wukovits (2015). Eisenhower: A Biography. St. Martin's Press. p. 66. ISBN .
  38. ^ ab"Sea Classics. Mike Coppock. September 2007. Ernest J. King: WWII's Saltiest Sea Dog?'". Findarticles.com. p. 5. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
  39. ^Gannon, Michael (1990). Operation Drumbeat. Harper. pp. 388–389 & 414–415. ISBN .
  40. ^Mike Coppock (September 2007). "Sea Classics. 'Ernest J. King: WWII'S Saltiest Sea Dog?'". Retrieved 2013-03-20.
  41. ^Skates, John Ray (2000). The Invasion of Japan: Alternative to the Bomb. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN .
  42. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, p. 223.
  43. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, p. 573.
  44. ^Heinl, Robert (1966). Dictionary of Military and Naval Quotations. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 258. ISBN .
  45. ^Clay Blair (2000). Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunters, 1939–1942. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 653–654. ISBN .
  46. ^Graybar, Lloyd J. (1996). Quarterdeck and Bridge: Two Centuries of American Naval Leaders. Naval Institute Press. ISBN .
  47. ^Morison, Samuel Eliot (1947). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. I: The Battle of the Atlantic: 1939–1943. Little, Brown and Company. pp. 135–148. ISBN .
  48. ^Willoughby, Malcolm F. (1957). The U.S. Coast Guard in World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. p. 333 (Merchant Vessels Lost). ISBN .
  49. ^Gannon, Operation Drumbeat, 1990, pp. 391, 414–415.
  50. ^Buell ch 22
  51. ^Buell ch 30
  52. ^Lord Ismay, The Memoirs of General Lord Ismay (1974) p. 253
  53. ^Morison, Samuel Eliot (1957). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. XI: Invasion of France & Germany: 1944–1945. Little, Brown and Company. pp. 13–14. ISBN .
  54. ^Pogue, Forrest C. (1973). George C. Marshall: Organizer of Victory 1943–1945. Viking Adult. p. 305. ISBN .
  55. ^Bowen, James. Despite Pearl Harbor, America adopts a 'Germany First' strategy. America Fights Back. The Pacific War from Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal. Pacific War Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.
  56. ^Simkin, John. "Ernest King". Spartacus Educational. Archived from the original on 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
  57. ^Gray, Anthony W., Jr. (1997). "Chapter 6: Joint Logistics in the Pacific Theater". In Alan Gropman (ed.). The Big 'L' – American Logistics in World War II. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press. Retrieved 2007-12-30.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  58. ^"Captain McVay". USS Indianapolis.org. Archived from the original on 2009-02-04. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
  59. ^Newcomb, Richard F. (2001). Abandon Ship. ISBN .
  60. ^Borneman The Admirals pg. 69
  61. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, pp. 12, 17, 26.
  62. ^Buell, Master of Sea Power, 1980, pp. 56, 452.
  63. ^https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a505406.pdf

General sources[edit]

  • Blair, Jr., Clay, Jr. (1975). Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia; New York: J.B. Lippincott and Company. ISBN .
  • Borneman, Walter R. (2012). The Admirals: Nimitz, Halsey, Leahy and King – The Five-Star Admirals Who Won the War at Sea. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN .
  • Borneman, Walter R. (2016). MacArthur at War: World War II in the Pacific. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN .
  • Buell, Thomas B. (1995). Master of Sea Power: A Biography of Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN .
  • Gannon, Michael (1991). Operation Drumbeat. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN .
  • Hall, George M. (1994). The Fifth Star: High Command in an Era of Global War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. ISBN .
  • Hayes, Grace P. (1982). The history of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in World War II.
  • Jordan, Jonathan W. (2015). American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II. NAL/Caliber.
  • King, Ernest; Whitehill, Walter Muir (1952). Fleet Admiral King: A Naval Record. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN .
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (1947). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Volume I: The Battle of the Atlantic, September 1939 – May 1943. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN .
  • Toll, Ian W. (2011). Pacific Crucible: War at Sea in the Pacific, 1941–1942. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • ——— (2015). The Conquering Tide: War in the Pacific Islands, 1942–1944. New York: W. W. Norton.
  • ——— (2020). Twilight of the Gods: War in the Western Pacific, 1944–1945. New York: W. W. Norton.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_King

16 Inspirational Quotes for Military Kids That Will Make You Smile

Inspirational quotes for military kids that will make your heart skip a beat. The perfect set of deployment quotes to inspire your kids during deployment.

Inside: Inspirational quotes for military kids that will make your heart skip a beat. They’re the perfect set of deployment quotes to inspire your kids during the ups and downs of deployment.


Military kids are truly impressive. They live all the challenges of military life, but they never signed up for it. They experience deployments, long separations from their service member parent (or parents), PCS moves, living in other countries, and saying “see ya later” to so many friends.

They move houses, they change schools, and they adapt to constantly-changing neighborhoods. The variable lifestyle causes military kids to be strong, flexible and adventurous.

They learn to accept change and adapt to difficulties. They find their inner courage after being the new kid or a foreigner in a strange land. Many military kids grow into confident, curious, and courageous individuals.

If you are raising amazing military kids, these quotes will inspire you. If you are struggling with helping your kids navigate the challenges of military life, then let these quotes remind you of all they will become.

1. Life is tough, my darling, but so are you.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

2. Home is wherever I’m with you.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

3. We wait.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

4. Be like a dandelion: bloom wherever you are planted.

Inspirational quotes for military life

5. My roots are as deep and strong as the mighty oak.

Inspirational quotes for military life

6. There are two gifts we should give our children: one is roots, the other is wings.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

7. How lucky I am to have something that makes saying goodbye so hard. ~A.A. Milne

Inspirational quotes for military life8. Family is not an important thing. It’s everything. ~Michael J. Fox

Inspirational quotes for military life

9. Make new friends, but keep the old: one is silver and the other’s gold.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

10. My heroes don’t wear capes. They wear dogtags.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

11. Military brats: we aren’t just friends; we’re family!

Inspirational quotes for military kids

12. You’re braver than you believe, and stronger than you seem, and smarter than you think! ~A.A. Milne/ Christopher Robin

Inspirational quotes for military kids

13. Military kids say goodbye more often in their first few years than the average person does in a lifetime.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

14. Why fit in when you were born to stand out? ~Dr. Seuss

Inspirational quotes for military kids

15. It always seems impossible until it is done. ~Nelson Mandela

Inspirational quotes for military kids

16. Military kids get used to moving trucks, but never find it easy to lose friends.

Inspirational quotes for military kids

Want more on military life?

Inspirational quotes for military kids that will make your heart skip a beat. The perfect set of deployment quotes to inspire your kids during deployment.

Are you new to this community? Start here, friend.
Sours: https://themilitarywifeandmom.com/16-inspirational-quotes-for-military-kids-that-will-make-you-smile/

Daughter quotes navy

Navy Quotes

Neal Stephenson

“He walked straight out of college into the waiting arms of the Navy.

They gave him an intelligence test. The first question on the math part had to do with boats on a river: Port Smith is 100 miles upstream of Port Jones. The river flows at 5 miles per hour. The boat goes through water at 10 miles per hour. How long does it take to go from Port Smith to Port Jones? How long to come back?

Lawrence immediately saw that it was a trick question. You would have to be some kind of idiot to make the facile assumption that the current would add or subtract 5 miles per hour to or from the speed of the boat. Clearly, 5 miles per hour was nothing more than the average speed. The current would be faster in the middle of the river and slower at the banks. More complicated variations could be expected at bends in the river. Basically it was a question of hydrodynamics, which could be tackled using certain well-known systems of differential equations. Lawrence dove into the problem, rapidly (or so he thought) covering both sides of ten sheets of paper with calculations. Along the way, he realized that one of his assumptions, in combination with the simplified Navier Stokes equations, had led him into an exploration of a particularly interesting family of partial differential equations. Before he knew it, he had proved a new theorem. If that didn't prove his intelligence, what would?

Then the time bell rang and the papers were collected. Lawrence managed to hang onto his scratch paper. He took it back to his dorm, typed it up, and mailed it to one of the more approachable math professors at Princeton, who promptly arranged for it to be published in a Parisian mathematics journal.

Lawrence received two free, freshly printed copies of the journal a few months later, in San Diego, California, during mail call on board a large ship called the U.S.S. Nevada. The ship had a band, and the Navy had given Lawrence the job of playing the glockenspiel in it, because their testing procedures had proven that he was not intelligent enough to do anything else.”
― Neal Stephenson, Cryptonomicon

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Admiral McRaven Leaves the Audience SPEECHLESS - One of the Best Motivational Speeches
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Keep up the and work hard, and take pride great work.

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See more ideas about quotes, mom quotes, working mom quotes. The day before, it was just me and your daddy. Proud mom quotes for daughter “a mother is your first friend, your best friend, and your best friend.” “mothers are like glue, they hold the family together.” “ my mom was my role model before i even know what that word was.” “god couldn’t be everywhere so that is why he invented mothers.”

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Proud parents message to a daughter. Dad work hard in graduating from college! Proud to be your mom quotes

Mar 14 2020 you have a rich heritage. “if at first you don’t succeed, try doing it the way mom told you in the beginning.” ― unknown. Discover and share proud mom to daughter quotes.

“happy mother’s day to the most amazing mom i could wish for. Since you were a child, you have been a hardworking girl. At a certain point, a relationship between a mother and a daughter becomes the most amusing thing ever.

I used to have dreams about giving birth to you all the time so when it finally happened, i could barely believe it. You are my child, but you are also my love, best friend, pride, inspiration, happiness, and most importantly, my most precious treasure. See more ideas about mom quotes, quotes, mother quotes.

Thank you mom message from daughter thank you mom message from daughter. I have a daughter who have taken it as an unfailing task to do all that she can to make me happy always, i have a daughter who always consider my feelings in all she do, i have a daughter whom i will never take for granted. Proud of my daughter quotes from parents to daughter.

I m so proud of my girls and all their accomplishments ash graduated psw and awesome mom wife daughter love quotes beautiful daughter quotes to my daughter. Step mom and step daughter quotes. A daughter is the biggest treasure for a mother and the mother is the biggest pride for a daughter.

You are the best gift from the universe we have ever received.

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