Fallout nevada wiki

Fallout nevada wiki DEFAULT

Arden, Nevada

Unincorporated community in Nevada, United States

Arden, Nevada was an unincorporated community in Clark County, Nevada. The area is now part of the town of Enterprise.[2] Located about 7 miles (11 km) southwest of Las Vegas, the area is experiencing rapid growth in housing development on land formerly owned by the Bureau of Land Management.

History[edit]

The San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad (later part of the Union Pacific Railroad) began operating through the area in 1905.[3] The railroad's Arden station, located about 12 miles (19 km) south of Las Vegas, was named for Arden, the New York estate of E. H. Harriman, the railroad's co-owner.[4][5] By 1906, Arden was serving as a shipping point for the Potosi mine.[6][7]

The Arden post office was established in 1907.[8] Around that time, William K. Moore, who has been credited as Arden's founder, discovered gypsum deposits in the nearby mountains.[9] With financing from Southern California businessmen, Moore started the Arden Plaster Company, which opened a mill at the site in 1908.[9][10] It was reported to be the second largest gypsum plant in the country.[10] A narrow-gauge railroad was constructed to connect the plant to the gypsum mine, 5 miles (8.0 km) away.[11]

The plaster plant burned down in 1912, but was quickly rebuilt.[9][12][13] In 1919, it was purchased by the United States Gypsum Company.[14] The plant was closed and dismantled in 1930 due to a decline in the construction industry.[15]

A railroad spur line was built in 1925 to connect Arden to the Blue Diamond Mine, 11 miles (18 km) to the northwest.[16]

A gravel pit was established at Arden in the mid-1950s, and operated until 1978, growing to 160 acres (65 ha) in size.[17] A commercial operation has since resumed operations at the site.

Clark County built a fallout shelter at Arden in the 1950s or 1960s to house regional government leaders in case of an attack on Las Vegas.[18][19] The shelter was maintained at least until the 1980s.[19]

On April 21, 1958, United Airlines Flight 736, a Douglas DC-7 passenger aircraft with 47 aboard. crashed onto then-empty desert two miles SE of Arden after a mid-air collision with a United States Air ForceF-100 jet fighter flown by two pilots.[20][21][22][23] All 49 aboard the two aircraft were killed.[24]

The Arden post office was closed in 1971.[25] In 1981, Arden was reported to have around 40 residents.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^"US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  2. ^"Map of Unincorporated Towns"(PDF). Clark County. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  3. ^David F. Myrick (1963). Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California: The Southern Roads. Howell-North Books. p. 647. ISBN .
  4. ^Nolan Listerview (August 6, 2012). "Former township steeped in history of Union Pacific Railroad". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  5. ^David F. Myrick (1963). Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California: The Southern Roads. Howell-North Books. p. 760.
  6. ^"Schwab buys the old Potosi". Reno Gazette-Journal. January 9, 1906 – via Newspapers.com.
  7. ^"Arden". Las Vegas Age. April 14, 1906. p. 6. Retrieved 2018-06-04 – via Las Vegas-Clark County Library District.
  8. ^Helen S. Carlson (1974). Nevada Place Names: A Geographic Dictionary. University of Nevada Press. p. 40. ISBN .
  9. ^ abcdKatherine Sheehey (May 10, 1981). "Gypsum strike built tiny Arden". Las Vegas Review-Journal. p. 6J.
  10. ^ ab"Immense plant". Las Vegas Age. January 18, 1908. p. 1. Retrieved 2018-06-04 – via Las Vegas-Clark County Library District.
  11. ^"The Arden Plaster Company". Salt Lake Mining Review. February 15, 1908 – via Newspapers.com.
  12. ^"Big plaster mills burned at Arden". Reno Evening Gazette. May 10, 1912 – via Newspapers.com.
  13. ^"Arden plaster mill". Las Vegas Age. June 1, 1912. Retrieved 2018-06-04 – via Las Vegas-Clark County Library District.
  14. ^"Mine, mill, and general construction news". Salt Lake Mining Review. August 15, 1919 – via Newspapers.com.
  15. ^"Bureau of Mines reports gypsum output less". Reno Evening Gazette. March 24, 1931 – via Newspapers.com.
  16. ^David F. Myrick (1963). Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California: The Southern Roads. Howell-North Books. p. 761.
  17. ^"BLM closes Arden sand, gravel pit". Las Vegas Review-Journal. May 26, 1978. p. 15A.
  18. ^Henry Brean (July 14, 2013). "Take a tour of a quaint Cold War relic, the bunker". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  19. ^ abDale Pugh (May 31, 1981). "Arden bunker serves as disaster command center". Las Vegas Review-Journal. p. 1B.
  20. ^Bates, Warren (April 21, 1998). "Sky Fire, Metal Rain; Forty years ago today, a jet fighter and a commercial airliner collided northeast of Las Vegas, killing 49". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on October 31, 2004.
  21. ^"Memorial sought to mark site of 1958 Las Vegas air crash". Nevada Appeal. April 21, 2018. Archived from the original on April 21, 2018.
  22. ^Brean, Henry (April 20, 2018). "Fatal Las Vegas crash in 1958 led to modern air safety system". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Archived from the original on April 21, 2018.
  23. ^"Las Vegas' Deadliest Air Disaster". Las Vegas Review-Journal. April 20, 2018. – (55 sec. video)
  24. ^Accident description for DC-7 and F-100 collision at the Aviation Safety Network
  25. ^James Gamett; Stanley W. Paher (1983). Nevada Post Offices: An Illustrated History. Nevada Publications. p. 35.

Coordinates: 36°01′05″N115°13′48″W / 36.01806°N 115.23000°W / 36.01806; -115.23000

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arden,_Nevada

Fallout of Nevada is a Russian Fallout 2 total conversion project. The development project started in 2009.

The developers sought to preserve the basic principles of the original, such as moral and ethical issues, post-nuclear wasteland gloomy atmosphere, black humor, and so on.

(Master* - Author of mod fulfilled has kept his word - FoN not only not inferior to the classic Fallout series - it complements them.)

Versions of the project[]

  • 0.99a - This version was released on 22 April 2011. This is the first version of the project. The project had to this point, numerous technical errors and flaws.
  • 0.99b - This version was released on 25 February 2012. This version has been significantly reworked and expanded.
  • 1.00 - This version was released on 10 March 2015. This is final version of the project.
  • 1.00 - English - This version was released on 4 August, 2017. It is the English translation of 1.00

Main plot[]

The game is set in the territory of Nevada state before the first Fallout. The main character is a dweller of Vault 8 (not Richard Grey or Boyarsky, mind you!). Your task is to find the SoS (The Set of outward Security), created to organize security measures in future Vaults. But this quest is child's play, compared to the unexpected turn of events that will take you on this potentially dark journey. Life in the wasteland is just beginning to appear. Settlements are scarce, roads are almost non-existent, The world is engulfed in anarchy, more so than before. It will be tough for your body and mind to survive.

Social interaction is the main part of this game's development. There will be no absolutely evil or absolutely good characters. Most of the quests and situations will provide the player with dilemmas of ethics and moral struggle.

Features[]

  1. Ideological and plot the continuation of Fallout 2.
  2. The central importance is the social, economic and psychological aspects.
  3. The high degree of authenticity of the locations.
  4. The presence of black and toilet humor.
  5. Increased importance and complexity of the tactics of warfare.

New features[]

  1. A completely new story.
  2. A new map of the world: nine new locations, and 3 fully remodeled location from Fallout 2
  3. Twelve completely new random encounters.
  4. 100+ new quests or quest situations.
  5. 2.7 MB game dialogues.
  6. About 200 new inventory items (weapons, drugs, evidence, etc.).
  7. New soundtrack and game videos.
  8. New interface functions (ambulance box, press rounds, setting traps, etc.)

Locations[]

The game contains many authentic objects from the states of Nevada and Utah. Locations: Vault City (Vault 8), Cheyenne, New Reno, Hawthorne, Wind of War, Area 51, New Vegas, Battle Mountain, Salt Lake City, Provo, vault "Beneficial" and a few small locations and special encounters.

Music and ambient[]

The Soundtrack for Fallout of Nevada (in ambient and dark ambient styles) was written by composer Alexei Trofimov (aka Nobody's Nail Machine). It is close to the design of the original series soundtrack by Mark Morgan (Fallout 1 & 2). These compositions have found great resonance among the fans of Fallout of Nevada and connoisseurs of the genre of ambient music. The OST contains 19 tracks (not all of them were used in the project). Intro to the game opens up a composition «What a wonderful world ...» performed by Louis Armstrong.

External Links[]

Sours: https://falloutmods.fandom.com/wiki/Fallout_of_Nevada
  1. Digikey pin header
  2. Archery svg free
  3. Curved tv repair
  4. Gangnam style chords
  5. Vintage chainsaw parts

Nevada Test Site

United States Department of Energy reservation located in southeastern Nye County, Nevada

The Nevada National Security Site (N2S2[1] or NNSS), known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS) until August 23, 2010,[2] is a United States Department of Energy (DoE) reservation located in southeastern Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. Formerly known as the Nevada Proving Grounds, the site was established on January 11, 1951 for the testing of nuclear devices, covering approximately 1,360 square miles (3,500 km2) of desert and mountainous terrain. Nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site began with a 1-kiloton-of-TNT (4.2 TJ) bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat on January 27, 1951. Over the subsequent four decades, over one thousand nuclear explosions were detonated at the NTS.[3] Many of the iconic images of the nuclear era come from the NTS. NNSS is operated by Mission Support and Test Services, LLC.

During the 1950s, the mushroom clouds from the 100 atmospheric tests could be seen from almost 100 mi (160 km) away. The city of Las Vegas experienced noticeable seismic effects, and the mushroom clouds, which could be seen from the downtown hotels, became tourist attractions. St. George, Utah received the brunt of the fallout from above-ground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flats/Nevada Test Site. Westerly winds routinely carried the fallout of these tests directly through St. George and southern Utah. Marked increases in cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, bone cancer, brain tumors, and gastrointestinal tract cancers, were reported from the mid-1950s onward.[4][5] A further 921 nuclear tests were carried out underground.

From 1986 through 1994, two years after the United States put a hold on full-scale nuclear weapons testing, 536 anti-nuclear protests were held at the Nevada Test Site involving 37,488 participants and 15,740 arrests, according to government records.[6]

The Nevada Test Site contains 28 areas, 1,100 buildings, 400 miles (640 km) of paved roads, 300 miles of unpaved roads, 10 heliports, and two airstrips.

Currently, the Mission Support and Test Services (MSTS), the successor of the NSTech, is the civilian contractor for the test site's management and further oversees the overall operations of the test site. The MSTS manages and operates the Nevada Test Site for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) while The Security Protective Force (SPF) is responsible for providing the safeguards and security to the NNSS.[7]

History[edit]

A map that details the federal landin southern Nevada, showing Nevada Test Site

The Nevada Test Site was established as a 680-square-mile (1,800 km2) area by President Harry S. Truman on December 18, 1950, within the Nellis Air Force Gunnery and Bombing Range.

1951–1992[edit]

This handbill was distributed 16 days before the first nuclear device was detonated at the Nevada Test Site.

The Nevada Test Site was the primary testing location of American nuclear devices from 1951 to 1992; 928 announced nuclear tests occurred there. Of those, 828 were underground.[8] (Sixty-two of the underground tests included multiple, simultaneous nuclear detonations, adding 93 detonations and bringing the total number of NTS nuclear detonations to 1,021, of which 921 were underground.)[9] The site is covered with subsidence craters from the testing.

The NTS was the United States' primary location for tests smaller than 1 Mt (4.2 PJ). 126 tests were conducted elsewhere, including most larger tests. Many of these occurred at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands.

During the 1950s, the mushroom clouds from atmospheric tests could be seen for almost 100 mi (160 km). The city of Las Vegas experienced noticeable seismic effects, and the distant mushroom clouds, which could be seen from the downtown hotels, became tourist attractions. The last atmospheric test detonation at the Nevada Test Site was "Little Feller I" of Operation Sunbeam, on July 17, 1962.

Although the United States did not ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, it honors the articles of the treaty, and underground testing of weapons ended as of September 23, 1992. Subcritical tests not involving a critical mass continued.

One notable test shot was the "Sedan" shot of Operation Storax on July 6, 1962, a 104-kiloton-of-TNT (440 TJ) shot for Operation Plowshare, which sought to prove that nuclear weapons could be used for peaceful means in creating bays or canals. It created a crater 1,280 feet (390 m) wide and 320 feet (100 m) deep that is operated as a tourist attraction.

1992–present[edit]

27 subcritical tests have been conducted at the site as of 2012[10]

In 2018, the State of Nevada sued the federal government to block a plan to ship "more than a metric ton" of plutonium to the site for storage.[11]

Destruction and survivability testing[edit]

This model two-story house was constructed 10,500 feet (3,200 m) away from the ground-zero of the Apple-2nuclear test.

Testing of the various effects of detonation of nuclear weapons was carried out during above-ground tests. Many kinds of vehicles (ranging from cars to aircraft), nuclear-fallout and standard bomb-shelters, public-utility stations and other building structures and equipment were placed at measured distances away from "ground zero", the spot on the surface immediately under or over the center of the blast. Operation Cue tested civil defense measures.[12] Such civilian and commercial effects testing was done with many of the atomic tests of Operation Greenhouse on Eniwetok Atoll, Operation Upshot-Knothole and Operation Teapot at the NTS.

Homes and commercial buildings of many different types and styles were built to standards typical of American and (less-often) European cities. Other such structures included military fortifications (of types used by both NATO and the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact) and civil-defense as well as "backyard"-type shelters. In such a typical test, several of the same buildings and structures might be built using the same layouts and plans with different types of materials, paints, general landscaping, cleanliness of the surrounding yards, wall-angles or varying distances from ground zero. Mannequins were placed in and around the test vehicles and buildings, aside from some left out in the open, for testing clothing and shock effects.

High-speed cameras were placed in protected locations to capture effects of radiation and shock waves. Typical imagery from these cameras shows paint boiling off the buildings, which are then pushed violently away from ground zero by the shock wave before being drawn toward the detonation by the suction caused by the climbing mushroom cloud. Footage from these cameras has become iconic, used in various media and available in the public domain and on DVD.[13]

This testing allowed the development of Civil Defense guidelines, distributed to the public, to increase the likelihood of survival in case of air- or spaceborne nuclear attack.

Environmental impact[edit]

Each of the below ground explosions—some as deep as 5,000 feet (1.5 km)—vaporized a large chamber, leaving a cavity filled with radioactive rubble. About a third of the tests were conducted directly in aquifers, and others were hundreds or thousands of feet below the water table.[14]

When underground explosions ended in 1992, the Department of Energy estimated that more than 300 megacuries (11 EBq) of radioactivity remained in the environment at that time, making the site one of the most radioactively contaminated locations in the United States. In the most seriously affected zones, the concentration of radioactivity in groundwater reaches millions of picocuries per liter. (The federal standard for drinking water is 20 picocuries per liter (0.74 Bq/l).) Although radioactivity levels in the water continue to decline over time, the longer-lived isotopes like plutonium or uranium could pose risks to workers or future settlers on the NNSS for tens of thousands of years.[14]

The Energy Department has 48 monitoring wells at the site, and began drilling nine deep wells in 2009. Because the contaminated water poses no immediate health threat, the department has ranked Nevada as low priority for cleaning up major nuclear weapons sites, and it operates far fewer wells than at most other contaminated sites.[14] In 2009, tritium with a half-life of 12.3 years was first detected in groundwater off-site of the NTS northwest corner in Pahute Mesa, near where the 1968 Benham and 1975 Tybo tests were conducted.[15]

The DOE issues an annual environmental monitoring report containing data from the 48 monitoring wells both on and off site.[15]

Janice C. Beatley started to study the botany of the Nevada test site in 1962 when she created 68 study sites. The intention had been to study the effect of radiation on the plants but this plan had to be changed when the United States abandoned atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in 1963. The sites however became important because they recorded long term change. She published reports up to 1980. Much of her data was never published; however it was all transferred to the USGS after she died. It was "an ideal place to conduct long-term ecosystem research".[16]

Protests and demonstrations[edit]

See also: Anti-nuclear protests in the United States

Members of Desert Lenten Experiencehold a prayer vigil during the Easter period of 1982 at the entrance to the Nevada Test Site.

From 1986 through 1994, two years after the United States put a hold on full-scale nuclear weapons testing, 536 demonstrations were held at the Nevada Test Site involving 37,488 participants and 15,740 arrests, according to government records.[6]

On February 5, 1987, more than 400 people were arrested, when they tried to enter the nation's nuclear proving grounds after nearly 2,000 demonstrators held a rally to protest nuclear weapons testing. Those arrested included the astronomer Carl Sagan and the actors Kris Kristofferson, Martin Sheen, and Robert Blake. Five Democratic members of Congress attended the rally: Thomas J. Downey, Mike Lowry, Jim Bates, Leon E. Panetta, and Barbara Boxer.[17][18]

American Peace Test (APT) and Nevada Desert Experience (NDE) held most of these.[19] In March 1988, APT held an event where more than 8,000 people attended a ten-day action to "Reclaim the Test Site", where nearly 3,000 people were arrested with more than 1,200 in one day. This set a record for most civil disobedience arrests in a single protest. American Peace Test was collectively run by a group of individuals residing in Las Vegas, but leadership for the group was national. It originated with a small group of people who were active in the National Nuclear Weapons Freeze. APT was a breakaway organization beginning in 1986, with first public events held in 1987.

In the years that followed 1994, Shundahai Network in cooperation with Nevada Desert Experience and Corbin Harney continued the protests of the government's continued nuclear weapons work and also staged efforts to stop a repository for highly radioactive waste adjacent to the test site at Yucca Mountain, 100 mi (160 km) northwest of Las Vegas.

Modern usage[edit]

WMD/counter-terrorism training exercise at the Nevada Test Site.

The test site offers monthly public tours, often fully booked months in advance. Visitors are not allowed to bring in cameras, binoculars, or cell phones, nor are they permitted to pick up rocks for souvenirs.[20]

While there are no longer any explosive tests of nuclear weapons at the site, there is still testing done to determine the viability of the United States' aging nuclear arsenal. Additionally, the site is the location of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex, which sorts and stores low-level radioactive waste that is not transuranic and has a half life not longer than 20 years. Bechtel Nevada Corporation (a joint venture of Lockheed Martin, Bechtel, and Johnson Controls) ran this complex until 2006. Several other companies won the bid for the contract since and combined to form a new company called National Security Technologies, LLC (a joint venture of Northrop Grumman, AECOM, CH2M Hill, and Nuclear Fuel Services until 2017.[21]).

The Radiological/Nuclear WMD Incident Exercise Site (T-1) replicates multiple terrorist radiological incidents with train, plane, automobile, truck, and helicopter props. It is located in Area 1, at the former site of tests EASY, SIMON, APPLE-2, and GALILEO.[22]

Landmarks and geography[edit]

Map this section's coordinates using:OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as:KML

A table of interesting places in and around the NNSS is presented here, which corresponds with many of the descriptions in the Nevada Test Site Guide.[23]

Name Location Notes
MercuryArea 23 36°39′34″N115°59′47″W / 36.6594°N 115.99642°W / 36.6594; -115.99642 (Mercury)The base housing and office area for the NTS.
U1a Area 1 37°00′29″N116°03′32″W / 37.00819°N 116.05894°W / 37.00819; -116.05894 (U1a)The U1a Complex is an underground laboratory used for physics experiments that obtain technical information about the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. U1h and U1g, shafts which add data access, ventilation and other utilities to the facility, are just north of this entrance.
Industrial area Area 1 37°03′56″N116°08′03″W / 37.06561°N 116.13411°W / 37.06561; -116.13411 (Industrial area)Houses $20 million worth of mining tools; contains an area for creating site grout and stemming mixes.
Doomtown Area 5 36°47′53″N115°56′03″W / 36.79805°N 115.93416°W / 36.79805; -115.93416 (Doomtown)The original effects test area and close cousin to Survival City in Area 1.
EPA's NTS Dairy Area 15 37°12′30″N116°02′25″W / 37.20829°N 116.04037°W / 37.20829; -116.04037 (EPA Dairy)A dairy and pig farm maintained from 1964 to 1984 by the EPA, mainly to provide experimental data for uptake of milk contamination, following Operation Schooner.
Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repositoryArea 25 36°51′10″N116°25′36″W / 36.85282°N 116.42672°W / 36.85282; -116.42672 (Yucca Mountain)Yucca Mountain radioactive disposal site. This is the north entrance; the south entrance is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) SSW.
A Tunnel Area 16 37°00′45″N116°11′44″W / 37.01245°N 116.19565°W / 37.01245; -116.19565 (A tunnel entrance)Shoshone Mountain, Tunnel A Entrance.
B Tunnel Area 12 37°11′36″N116°11′56″W / 37.19345°N 116.19887°W / 37.19345; -116.19887 (B tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel B Entrance.
C, D, and F Tunnels Area 12 37°11′36″N116°12′00″W / 37.19322°N 116.19999°W / 37.19322; -116.19999 (C, D and F tunnel entrances)Rainier Mesa, tunnels C, D, and F Entrances - separate, but very close together.
E Tunnel Area 12 37°11′17″N116°11′41″W / 37.18816°N 116.19477°W / 37.18816; -116.19477 (E tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel E Entrance.
G Tunnel Area 12 37°10′10″N116°11′41″W / 37.1694°N 116.1947°W / 37.1694; -116.1947 (G tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel G Entrance.
I Tunnel Area 12 37°13′08″N116°09′37″W / 37.21876°N 116.16036°W / 37.21876; -116.16036 (I tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel I Entrance.
J Tunnel Area 12 37°13′08″N116°09′47″W / 37.21884°N 116.16319°W / 37.21884; -116.16319 (J tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel J Entrance.
K Tunnel Area 12 37°13′08″N116°09′32″W / 37.21878°N 116.15891°W / 37.21878; -116.15891 (K tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel K Entrance.
N Tunnel Area 12 37°12′06″N116°11′31″W / 37.20169°N 116.19187°W / 37.20169; -116.19187 (N tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel N Entrance.
P Tunnel Area 12 37°13′45″N116°09′13″W / 37.22906°N 116.1535°W / 37.22906; -116.1535 (P tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel P Entrance.
T Tunnel Area 12 37°12′57″N116°10′02″W / 37.21589°N 116.16711°W / 37.21589; -116.16711 (T tunnel entrance)Rainier Mesa, Tunnel T Entrance.
X Tunnel Area 25 36°44′44″N116°19′41″W / 36.74542°N 116.32816°W / 36.74542; -116.32816 (X tunnel entrance)Two tunnel entrances, used by the U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory for depleted uranium testing.
Operation Icecap Area 7 37°04′51″N116°02′44″W / 37.0808°N 116.04558°W / 37.0808; -116.04558 (Icecap)Operation Icecap was being built up when the 1992 Comprehensive Test Ban was signed. The equipment was left in place, including the .5 million pounds (230,000 kg) instrumentation payload, the crane, the wiring, and many of the recording trailers.
Operation Gabbs Area 2 37°08′17″N116°04′25″W / 37.13796°N 116.07353°W / 37.13796; -116.07353 (Gabbs)Operation Gabbs was another shaft detonation scheduled for 1993 that was laid to rest by the '92 test ban treaty.
Operation Greenwater Area 20 37°13′51″N116°26′50″W / 37.23086°N 116.44725°W / 37.23086; -116.44725 (Greenwater)The third suspended test was Operation Greenwater, the test of the space X-Ray laser system, a part of the Star Wars concept. The 45 metres (148 ft) tower remains on the site. It is supposed to be in Area 19, but actually is in 20.
Survival City Area 1 37°03′11″N116°06′12″W / 37.05305°N 116.10339°W / 37.05305; -116.10339 (Survival City)The alternative to Doomtown. Used in the Teapot Desert/Rock exercises, and the Civil Defence/PR effort Operation Cue. Name taken from "News of the Day" newsreel about the Apple 2 test.
Fortune Training Area Area 1 36°59′13″N116°02′38″W / 36.98689°N 116.04384°W / 36.98689; -116.04384 (Fortune Training Area)Fortune was a training facility for building bomb test sites. Site reused for Unicorn test in 2005–06.
Divine StrakeArea 16 37°01′21″N116°10′55″W / 37.02245°N 116.18203°W / 37.02245; -116.18203 (U16b tunnel, "Divine Strake")U16b tunnel entrance complex, including Divine Strake proposed 700t chemical blast tunnel on the north, the latter heavily protested, delayed, and eventually abandoned.
Plutonium Valley Area 11 36°58′36″N115°57′44″W / 36.97659°N 115.96228°W / 36.97659; -115.96228 (Plutonium Valley)Area contains scattered raw plutonium from plutonium dispersal safety tests.
Original BREN TowerArea 4 37°05′55″N116°05′49″W / 37.09869°N 116.09685°W / 37.09869; -116.09685 (BREN original placement)Original site of the Bare Reactor Experiment in Nevada (BREN), a reactor on a tower which emulated bomb explosions for medical studies. A Japanese village was constructed around it because it focused on war bomb injuries. BREN was later moved to Area 25.
BREN TowerArea 25 36°46′50″N116°14′37″W / 36.78062°N 116.24358°W / 36.78062; -116.24358 (BREN move here)The BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) is a 453 m (1,486 ft) tall tower originally in Yucca Flat, used to experimentally irradiate ground targets with gamma and neutrons. Moved to Jackass Flat, for HENRE (High Energy Neutrons Action Experiment). Demolished 2012-05-23.
Nerva Test Stand Area 25 36°49′54″N116°16′41″W / 36.83162°N 116.27809°W / 36.83162; -116.27809 (Nerva test stand)Test stand for the nuclear rocket "Nerva".
KIWI-TNTArea 25 36°49′58″N116°16′45″W / 36.83285°N 116.27914°W / 36.83285; -116.27914 (KIWI-TNT)Test of the Nerva engine to destruction, to determine worst-case scenario for runaway reactor. 1.6 Mci released.
DAF Area 6 36°53′54″N116°02′53″W / 36.89827°N 116.04814°W / 36.89827; -116.04814 (DAF)Device Assembly Facility: bombs and components are made ready for testing here.
RWMS-5 Area 5 36°51′27″N115°57′18″W / 36.85758°N 115.9551°W / 36.85758; -115.9551 (RWMS-5)Radioactive Waste Management Facility, Area 5
E-MAD Building Area 25 36°48′23″N116°18′17″W / 36.80646°N 116.30476°W / 36.80646; -116.30476 (E-MAD)Engine Maintenance and Disassembly Building, used for handling radioactive NERVA engines; site being dismantled.
R-MAD Building Area 25 36°48′58″N116°14′22″W / 36.8161°N 116.23936°W / 36.8161; -116.23936 (R-MAD)Reactor Maintenance and Disassembly Building, maintained radioactive NERVA reactors. Also used in the MX program; site being dismantled.
ETS-1 Test Stand Area 25 36°49′56″N116°18′44″W / 36.8321°N 116.31217°W / 36.8321; -116.31217 (ETS-1 test stand)Engineering Test Stand 1, a stand for testing nuclear rockets in a standard upright position.
MX Testing Area Area 25 36°41′58″N116°22′46″W / 36.69946°N 116.37952°W / 36.69946; -116.37952 (MX test area)MX missile test track and silo
JASPER Area 27 36°46′30″N116°07′01″W / 36.77496°N 116.11703°W / 36.77496; -116.11703 (JASPER)Houses the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research, a two-stage light-gas gun for shock experiments.
Camp 12 Area 12 37°11′46″N116°09′22″W / 37.19598°N 116.15624°W / 37.19598; -116.15624 (Camp 12)Camp for miners and others working on the Rainier Mesa in the '70s.
BEEF Area 4 37°05′46″N116°05′33″W / 37.09611°N 116.09262°W / 37.09611; -116.09262 (BEEF)Big Explosives Experimental Facility
Area 3 RWMS Area 3 37°02′40″N116°01′27″W / 37.04445°N 116.02425°W / 37.04445; -116.02425 (RWMS)Low level Radioactive Waste Management Facility. Waste (mostly dirt) is buried in a selection of old subsidence craters.
Atlas Pulse PowerArea 6 36°58′46″N116°02′23″W / 36.97946°N 116.03965°W / 36.97946; -116.03965 (Atlas Pulse Power)The Atlas Pulse Power Facility
Apple-2 houses Area 1 37°02′40″N116°04′26″W / 37.04434°N 116.07397°W / 37.04434; -116.07397 (Apple-2 houses)Three "typical American" houses built for the Apple-2 civil defense event. The one on the left is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from the 29kt blast, the right one 2 miles (3.2 km). The left one is on the monthly tour bus route. The two towers are from later seismic studies.
News Nob Area 6 36°56′42″N116°03′00″W / 36.945°N 116.05°W / 36.945; -116.05 (News Nob)The location from which VIPs and news people would watch nuclear tests.
Annie Emplacement Area 5 36°42′15″N115°58′26″W / 36.70428°N 115.97387°W / 36.70428; -115.97387 (Annie emplacement)Location of "Atomic Annie" (M65 280mm nuclear field artillery) emplacement for Upshot-Knothole Grable test.
BACHUS Site Area 12 37°11′44″N116°09′30″W / 37.19569°N 116.1584°W / 37.19569; -116.1584 (BACHUS)Biotechnology Activity Characterization by Unconventional Signatures, a secret biowarfare simulation facility.
Rad/NucCTEC Area 6 36°53′25″N116°01′51″W / 36.89026°N 116.03093°W / 36.89026; -116.03093 (Rad/NucTEC)Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Complex Homeland Security operational nuclear test and training center
Project PlutoArea 26 36°49′03″N116°08′57″W / 36.81744°N 116.14906°W / 36.81744; -116.14906 (Project Pluto)Ram-jet nuclear-powered cruise missile engine development project; site being dismantled.
Lockheed-Martin AOF Area 6 36°55′37″N116°00′27″W / 36.92692°N 116.00755°W / 36.92692; -116.00755 (AOF - UAV test area)Aerial Operations Facility; a testing area for UAVs.
Groom Lake - Area 51Area 51 37°14′23″N115°48′49″W / 37.23986°N 115.81363°W / 37.23986; -115.81363 (Groom Lake, Area 51)The famed Air Force base used for testing secret aircraft.
Camp Desert RockArea 22 36°37′33″N116°01′10″W / 36.62593°N 116.01937°W / 36.62593; -116.01937 (Camp Desert Rock)The Army Camp that housed the participants in Operations Desert Rock I-VIII. Across the road is the Pig Hilton, where test subjects were housed in barnyard splendor.
Test Control Point Area 6 36°56′04″N116°03′17″W / 36.93453°N 116.05482°W / 36.93453; -116.05482 (Test Control Point)NTS Test control center (CP-1). These two buildings controlled the tests performed at the NTS.
NNSS-CTOS Area 1 37°03′09″N116°06′11″W / 37.05263°N 116.10308°W / 37.05263; -116.10308 (CTOS)Counter Terrorism Operations Support, a location for training in emergency preparedness in radiological emergencies.
Super Kukla Area 27 36°46′45″N116°06′37″W / 36.77907°N 116.11041°W / 36.77907; -116.11041 (Super Kukla)A naked reactor test area designed to test equipment under a hostile radioactive environment, 1965–78.
Bleachers Area 5 36°42′30″N115°58′27″W / 36.70843°N 115.97412°W / 36.70843; -115.97412 (VIP Bleachers)Bleacher area for viewing of Frenchman Flat events.
BODF Area 4 37°04′50″N116°05′13″W / 37.08068°N 116.08697°W / 37.08068; -116.08697 (BODF)Buried Objects Detection Facility, area to test and calibrate mine sweeping equipment against buried objects.
Gun Turret USS Louisville Area 2 37°08′22″N116°06′33″W / 37.13945°N 116.10904°W / 37.13945; -116.10904 (Gun Turret)Used in calibration of Whitney, Shasta, Diablo and Smoky tests. Made of "old" steel from 1940s U.S. heavy cruiser (USS Louisville CA 28) damaged from kamikaze on January 5, 1945; it was "aimed" at the shot cab to get radiation data.
Hazmat Spill Facility Area 5 36°48′05″N115°57′03″W / 36.80138°N 115.95075°W / 36.80138; -115.95075 (Hazmat Spill Facility)Hazmat Spill Test Facility - used to test Hazmat strategies and tactics. Became the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex in 2005.
RBIFF Area 26 36°48′59″N116°09′53″W / 36.81645°N 116.16486°W / 36.81645; -116.16486 (RBIFF)Re-entry Body Impact Fuze Flights
Ship of the Desert Area 5 36°52′29″N115°55′46″W / 36.87486°N 115.92957°W / 36.87486; -115.92957A massive tracked structure designed to capture neutrons from the Diagonal Line experiment.
Rock Valley Study Area 25 36°41′03″N116°11′38″W / 36.68406°N 116.19397°W / 36.68406; -116.19397 (Rock Valley Study)The circles are the Rock Valley Study Area, environmental research area for studying radiation in the desert ecosystem.
Climax Mine Area 15 37°13′25″N116°03′32″W / 37.22352°N 116.05895°W / 37.22352; -116.05895 (Climax Mine)Location of an old silver mine, recycled for three nuclear tests and the Spent Fuel Test in which spent nuclear fuel was stored in a mine drift to study the effects on the granite walls.
The Forest Area 5 36°45′33″N115°57′05″W / 36.75907°N 115.95138°W / 36.75907; -115.95138 (The Forest)The famous forest on the desert, swept by the blasts of Encore and Grable.

Cancer and test site[edit]

St. George, Utah received the brunt of the fallout from above-ground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flats/Nevada Test Site. Winds routinely carried the fallout of these tests directly through St. George and southern Utah. Marked increases in cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, bone cancer, brain tumors, and gastrointestinal tract cancers were reported from the mid-1950s through 1980.[4][5]

On May 19, 1953, the United States government detonated the 32-kiloton (130 TJ) atomic bomb (nicknamed "Harry") at the Nevada Test Site. The bomb later gained the name "Dirty Harry" because of the tremendous amount of off-site fallout generated by the bomb.[24] Winds carried fallout 135 miles (217 km) to St. George, where residents reported "an oddly metallic sort of taste in the air."[citation needed]

The Howard Hughes motion picture The Conqueror was being filmed in the area of St. George at the time of the detonation. The fallout is often blamed for the later cancer deaths among the cast and crew.[citation needed] However, the rates of cancer from that cast and crew (>90 out of 220) were almost identical to the general population, in which 43% may be expected to develop cancer in their lifetimes, and 23% die from it.[25] Nonetheless, there are speculations of a connection.

A 1962 United States Atomic Energy Commission report found that "children living in St. George, Utah may have received doses to the thyroid of radioiodine as high as 120 to 440 rads" (1.2 to 4.4 Gy).[26] A 1979 study reported in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded that:

A significant excess of leukemia deaths occurred in children up to 14 years of age living in Utah between 1959 and 1967. This excess was concentrated in the cohort of children born between 1951 and 1958, and was most pronounced in those residing in counties receiving high fallout.[27]

In 1982, a lawsuit brought by nearly 1,200 people accused the government of negligence in atomic and/or nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site in the 1950s, which they said had caused leukemia and other cancers. Dr. Karl Z. Morgan, Director of Health Physics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, testified that radiation protection measures in the tests were substandard to what was becoming known of best practices at the time.[28]

In a report by the National Cancer Institute, released in 1997, it was determined that ninety atmospheric tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) deposited high levels of radioactiveiodine-131 (5.5 exabecquerels) across a large portion of the contiguous United States, especially in the years 1952, 1953, 1955, and 1957—doses large enough, they determined, to produce 10,000 to 75,000 cases of thyroid cancer. The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990 allowed for people living downwind of NTS for at least two years in particular Nevada, Arizona, or Utah counties, between January 21, 1951 and October 31, 1958, or June 30 and July 31, 1962, and suffering from certain cancers or other serious illnesses deemed to have been caused by fallout exposure to receive compensation of $50,000. By January 2006, over 10,500 claims had been approved, and around 3,000 denied, for a total amount of over $525 million in compensation dispensed to "downwinders". By May 2014, the numbers of claims approved had reached 28,880, for a total compensation of $1.9 billion.[29] Additionally, the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000 provides compensation and medical benefits for nuclear weapons workers who may have developed certain work-related illnesses.[30]

Uranium miners, mill workers, and ore transporters are also eligible for $100,000 compassionate payment under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Program, while $75,000 is the fixed payment amount for workers who were participants in the above-ground nuclear weapons tests.

Nuclear test series carried out at the Nevada Test Site[edit]

Areas[edit]

The Test Site is broken down into areas. Some of the areas and their uses include the following:

Area 1[edit]

Tunnel in the U1a Complex within Area 1

Area 1 held eight nuclear tests for a total of nine detonations.[8] Four early atmospheric tests were conducted above Area 1 in the early 1950s, as well as three underground tests in 1971 and 1990. In 1955, a Civil Defense experiment (called Operation Cue in the press) studied nuclear blast effects on various building types; a few structures still stand.

Heavy drilling equipment and concrete construction facilities are sited in Area 1. Non-destructive X-ray, gamma ray, and subcritical detonation tests continue to be conducted in Area 1.

The radioactivity present on the ground in Area 1 provides a radiologically contaminated environment for the training of first responders.[32]

Area 2[edit]

Main article: Area 2 (Nevada National Security Site)

Area 2 is a division of the Nevada Test Site in the Mojave Desert. The area is located 18 miles south-west of Area 51.

Area 2 was the site of 144 tests comprising 169 detonations.[8] Shot "Gabbs", intended for 1993, was abandoned in place.[33]

Area 3[edit]

Area 3 held 266 nuclear tests for a total of 288 detonations, including Upshot-Knothole 'Harry' more than in any other area of the NTS.[8]

As part of Operation Tinderbox, on June 24, 1980, a large satellite prototype (DSCS III) was subjected to radioactivity from the "Huron King" shot in a vertical line-of-sight (VLOS) test undertaken in Area 3. This was a program to improve the database on nuclear hardening design techniques for defense satellites.

The final nuclear test detonation at Nevada Test Site was Operation Julin's "Divider" on September 23, 1992, just prior to the moratorium temporarily ending all nuclear testing.[34] Divider was a safety experiment test shot that was detonated at the bottom of a shaft sunk into Area 3.

In 1995 and 1997, plutonium-contaminated soil from "Double Tracks" and "Clean Slate 1" of Operation Roller Coaster (1963) was picked up from the Tonopah Test Range and brought to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site as a first step in eventually returning Tonopah Test Range to an environmentally neutral state. Corrective action regarding the contaminated material from the "Clean Slate 2" and "Clean Slate 3" tests has yet to be agreed upon.[35]

Area 4[edit]

Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) in Area 4

Area 4 held 40 nuclear tests for a total of 44 detonations.[8]

It is home to the Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF).[33]

Area 5[edit]

Main article: Area 5 (Nevada National Security Site)

Area 5 held 19 nuclear tests.[8] Five atmospheric tests were detonated, starting on January 27, 1951 at Area 5 as part of Operation Ranger. These were the first nuclear tests at NTS. Further tower detonations were studied at Area 5, and the Grable shot which was fired from a M65 Atomic Cannon located in Area 11 exploded in Area 5. The Priscilla test was conducted at Area 5 on June 24, 1957.

Five underground tests were set up at Area 5; four of those suffered accidental release of radioactive materials. On March 16, 1968, physicist Glenn T. Seaborg toured the upcoming Milk Shake shot of Operation Crosstie.[36]Milk Shake's radioactive release was not detected outside of NTS boundaries.

Area 6[edit]

Device Assembly Facility in Area 6
Control Point in Area 6

Area 6 held four nuclear tests for a total of six detonations.[8] The area features an asphalt runway, that was constructed on top of a dirt landing strip, that existed since the 1950s. Some buildings, including a hangar, are situated near the runway.[37]

The Device Assembly Facility (DAF)[33] was originally built to consolidate nuclear explosives assembly operations. It now serves as the Criticality Experiments Facility (CEF).

The Control Point[33] is the communication hub of the NTS. It was used by controllers to trigger and monitor nuclear test explosions.

In 1982, while a live nuclear bomb was being lowered underground, the base came under attack by armed combatants. The combatants turned out to be a security team conducting an improperly scheduled drill.

Area 7[edit]

Area 7 held 92 nuclear tests.[8]

During Operation Buster, four successful tests were conducted via airdrop, with bomber aircraft releasing nuclear weapons over Area 7.

It is also the site of Matthew Reilly's book called Area 7.

Shot "Icecap" planned for 1993 was abandoned in Area 7 following 1992's testing moratorium. The tower, shaft and wiring remain in place, along with a crane intended to lower the nuclear test package into the shaft.[38]

Area 8[edit]

Radioactive materials were accidentally released from the 1970 Baneberry shot in Area 8.

Area 8 held 13 nuclear tests for a total of 15 detonations.[8]

Area 8 hosted the "Baneberry" shot of Operation Emery on December 18, 1970. The Baneberry 10 kt (42 TJ) test detonated 900 feet (270 m) below the surface but its energy cracked the soil in unexpected ways, causing a fissure near ground zero and the failure of the shaft stemming and cap.[39] A plume of fire and dust was released, raining fallout on workers in different locations within NTS. The radioactive plume released 6.7 megacuries (250 PBq) of radioactive material, including 80 kCi (3.0 PBq) of Iodine131.[40]

Area 9[edit]

Area 9 held 115 nuclear tests for a total of 133 detonations.[8]

In Area 9, the 74 kt (310 TJ) "Hood" test on July 5, 1957, part of Operation Plumbbob, was the largest atmospheric test ever conducted within the continental United States; nearly five times larger in yield than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. A balloon carried Hood up to 460 meters above the ground where it was detonated. Over 2,000 troops took part in the test in order to train them in conducting operations on the nuclear battlefield. 11 megacuries (410 PBq) of iodine-131 (131I) were released into the air.[40]

Area 10[edit]

North end of Yucca Flat, where most tests have been conducted.

Area 10 held 57 nuclear tests for a total of 71 detonations.[8]

The first underground test at NTS was the "Uncle" shot of Operation Jangle. Uncle detonated on November 29, 1951 within a shaft sunk into Area 10.

The "John" shot of Plumbbob, on July 19, 1957, was the first test firing of the nuclear-tipped AIR-2 Genie air-to-air rocket designed to destroy incoming enemy bombers with a nuclear explosion. The 2 kt (8.4 TJ) warhead exploded approximately three miles above five volunteers and a photographer who stood unprotected at "ground zero" in Area 10 to show the apparent safety of battlefield nuclear weapons to personnel on the ground.[41] The test also demonstrated the ability of a fighter aircraft to deliver a nuclear-tipped rocket and avoid being destroyed in the process. A Northrop F-89J fired the rocket.

The "Sedan" test of Operation Storax on July 6, 1962, a 104 kt (440 TJ) shot for the Operation Plowshare which sought to discover whether nuclear weapons could be used for peaceful means in creating lakes, bays or canals. The explosion displaced twelve million tons of earth, creating the Sedan crater which is 1,280 feet (390 m) wide and 320 feet (100 m) deep.

Area 11[edit]

Main article: Area 11 (Nevada Test Site)

Area 11 held 9 nuclear tests.[8] Four of the tests were weapons safety experiments conducted as Project 56; they spread so much harmful radioactive material around the test sites that Area 11 has been called "Plutonium Valley". As is the case with Area 1, background radiation levels make Area 11 suitable for realistic training in methods of radiation detection.[35]

Area 12[edit]

Main article: Area 12 (Nevada National Security Site)

Area 12 held 61 nuclear tests between 1957 and 1992, one of which involved two detonations. All tests were conducted below Rainier and Aqueduct mesas.

Area 12 was the primary location for tunnel tests and used almost exclusively for that purpose. The tunnel complexes mined into Rainier and Aqueduct Mesa include the B-, C-, D-, E-, F-, G-, I-, J-, K-, N-, P-, and T-Tunnel complexes, and the R- and S- shafts.

Area 13[edit]

There is no Area 13 within NNSS, though such a name is attached to a section of Nellis Air Force Range which abuts the northeastern corner of Area 15.[42]Project 57's weapons safety test was conducted here on April 24, 1957, spreading particles emitting alpha radiation over a large area.[43]

Area 14[edit]

Area 14 occupies approximately 26 square miles (67 km2) in the central portion of the NNSS. Various outdoor experiments are conducted in this area.[44] No atmospheric or underground nuclear tests were conducted in Area 14.[8]

Area 15[edit]

Three underground detonations took place in area 15 in the 1960s.[8]

Pile Driver was a notable Department of Defense test. A large underground installation was built to study the survivability of hardened underground bunkers undergoing a nuclear attack. Information from the test was used in designing hardened missile silos and the North American Aerospace Defense Command facility in Colorado Springs.[33]

The abandoned Crystal and Climax mines are found in Area 15. Storage tanks hold contaminated materials.[33]

From 1964 to 1981, the Environmental Protection Agency operated a 36-acre (150,000 m2) experimental farm in Area 15. Extensive plant and soil studies evaluated the uptake of pollutants in farm-grown vegetables and from the forage eaten by a dairy herd of some 30 Holstein cows. Scientists also studied horses, pigs, goats, and chickens.[33]

Area 16[edit]

Area 16 held six nuclear tests.[8]

Area 17[edit]

No nuclear tests took place in Area 17.[8]

Area 18[edit]

Area 18 held five nuclear tests.[8] and includes the Pahute Mesa Airstrip.[31]

Area 19[edit]

Main article: Pahute Mesa

Pahute Mesa is one of four major nuclear test regions within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It occupies 243 square miles (630 km2) in the northwest corner of the NNSS. The eastern section is known as Area 19 and the western section as Area 20.

A total of 85 nuclear tests were conducted in Pahute Mesa between 1965 and 1992. Three of them — Boxcar, Benham and Handley — had a yield of over one megaton. Three tests were conducted as part of Operation Plowshare and one as part of Vela Uniform.

Area 20[edit]

Main article: Pahute Mesa

The western section of Pahute Mesa, with a portion of the 85 nuclear tests conducted in the Pahute Mesa occurring in this section.

Area 21[edit]

There is no Area 21 within NNSS, though such a name is attached to a section of Los Alamos National Laboratory.[45]

Area 22[edit]

No nuclear tests took place in Area 22.[8] Area 22 once held Camp Desert Rock, a staging base for troops undergoing atmospheric nuclear blast training; as many as 9,000 troops were camped there in 1955. Desert Rock Airport's runway was enlarged to a 7,500 ft (2,300 m) length in 1969 by the Atomic Energy Commission. It is a transport hub for personnel and supplies going to NNSS and also serves as an emergency landing strip.

Area 23[edit]

No nuclear tests took place in Area 23.[8] The town of Mercury, Nevada lies within Area 23. The area is the main pathway to and from NNSS test locations by way of U.S. Route 95. An open sanitary landfill is located to the west of Mercury, and a closed hazardous waste site abuts the landfill. Mercury is also the main management area for the site which includes a bar and large cafeteria, printing plant, medical center, warehousing, fleet management, liquidation and recycling center, engineering offices, dormitories, and other administrative areas for both the O&M contractors, LLNL, LANL, and SNL personnel. At its height in the 1950s and '60s, it also held several restaurants, a bowling alley, a movie theater, and a motel.

Area 24[edit]

There is no Area 24 within NNSS, though such a name is attached to a satellite site of the NNSS referred to as the North Las Vegas Facility.[45]

Area 25[edit]

Main article: Area 25 (Nevada National Security Site)

Area 26[edit]

Mostly abandoned buildings and structures at Port Gaston

No nuclear tests took place in Area 26,[8] the most arid section of the NNSS. An old abandoned mine, the Horn Silver Mine, was used for waste disposal between 1959 and the 1970s; some of the waste is radioactive. Water flow past the shaft could pose a human health risk, so corrective action has been planned.[46]

In 1983 the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency performed the NUWAX-83 tests near Port Gaston in Area 26, simulating the explosion of a nuclear-armed helicopter and the resulting spread of nuclear debris over 65 acres. The radioactive material used to simulate the accident became inert in less than six months.[47]

An eight-square-mile complex was constructed in Area 26 in support of Project Pluto.[44] It consisted of six miles of roads, the critical assembly building, the control building, the assembly and shop buildings, and utilities.[48] Those buildings have been used recently as mock reactor facilities in the training of first responders.

Area 27[edit]

Main article: Area 27 (Nevada National Security Site)

Area 28[edit]

Area 28 no longer exists; it was absorbed into Areas 25 and 27.[33]

Area 29[edit]

No nuclear tests took place in Area 29.[8] The rugged terrain of Area 29 serves as a buffer between other areas of NNSS. A helipad is present at Shoshone Peak.

Area 30[edit]

Area 30 occupies approximately 59 square miles (150 km2) at the center of the western edge of the NNSS. Area 30 has rugged terrain and includes the northern reaches of Fortymile Canyon. It is used primarily for military training and exercises.[44]

Area 30 was the site of a single nuclear test, the Crosstie Buggy row charge experiment, part of Operation Plowshare, which involved five simultaneous detonations.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Nevada Test Site north of Las Vegas gets new name: Nevada National Security Site, or N2S2". March 20, 2015.
  2. ^"Nevada nuclear bomb site given new name". United Press International. August 23, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  3. ^The Nevada Test Site. Emmet Gowin. Foreword by Robert Adams. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2019, pages 148 and 157 (Publ. DOE/NV-209, 1993).
  4. ^ abJohnson, Carl (1984). "Cancer Incidence in an Area of Radioactive Fallout Downwind From the Nevada Test Site". Journal of the American Medical Association. 251 (2): 230–6. doi:10.1001/jama.1984.03340260034023. PMID 6690781.
  5. ^ abFalk, Jim (1982). Global Fission:The Battle Over Nuclear Power, p. 134.
  6. ^ abWestern Shoshone spiritual leader dies[permanent dead link]
  7. ^"Nevada National Security Site". NNSS. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  8. ^ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvU.S. Department of Energy / Nevada Operations Office, United States Nuclear Tests - July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000, DOE/NV-209 Rev 15Archived October 12, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^One multiple test took place in Colorado; the other 62 were at NTS
  10. ^Frank von Hippel (December 14, 2012). "Subcritical experiments". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  11. ^PAUL ROUPE (December 3, 2018). "Nevada Balks at Feds' Plan to Store Plutonium Near Vegas". Courthouse News.
  12. ^Teitel, Amy Shira (November 5, 2014), Operation Cue, A.K.A. Nuking Houses for Emergency Preparedness, retrieved May 7, 2018
  13. ^Operation Cue (1964 revision), U.S. Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense, 1964, retrieved May 7, 2018
  14. ^ abcRalph Vartabedian. Nuclear scars: Tainted water runs beneath Nevada desertLos Angeles Times, November 13, 2009.
  15. ^ abKeith Rogers (November 19, 2014). "Report: Nuclear testing remnants remain radioactive". Las Vegas Review Jour. Stephens Media LLC. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  16. ^"FS-040-01 Monitoring Of Ecosystem Dynamics In The Mojave Desert: The Beatley Permanent Plots". pubs.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  17. ^Robert Lindsey. 438 Protesters are Arrested at Nevada Nuclear Test SiteNew York Times, February 6, 1987.
  18. ^Biggest Demonstration Yet at Test Site
  19. ^Political protest and cultural revolution By Barbara Epstein p. 165.
  20. ^U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site ToursArchived February 19, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^National Security Technologies "About" PageArchived March 11, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^Counter Terrorism Operations Support - WMD Incident SiteArchived July 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^"Nevada Test Site Guide"(PDF). DOE/NV-715 Rev 1. National Nuclear Security Administration. 2005. Archived from the original(PDF) on February 27, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  24. ^Meeting Dirty Harry in 1953Archived June 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Chester McQueary, CommonDreams.org.
  25. ^"American Cancer Society".
  26. ^Pat Ortmeyer and Arjun Makhijani. "Let Them Drink Milk," The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November/December 1997, via IEERArchived April 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved October 31, 2007.
  27. ^Gerald H. Clarfield and William M. Wiecek (1984). Nuclear America: Military and Civilian Nuclear Power in the United States 1940–1980, Harper & Row, New York, p. 215.
  28. ^Karl Z. Morgan, 91, Founder of the Field Of Health Physics, Dies in Tennessee
  29. ^Radiation Exposure Compensation System: Claims to Date Summary of Claims Received by 05/08/2014
  30. ^Office of Compensation Analysis and Support. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  31. ^ abUnited States Geological Survey. Nevada Test Site. Geologic Surface Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing. Accessed on April 18, 2009.
  32. ^First Responder TrainingArchived September 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. US Department of Energy. Nevada Operations Office. National Security. Homeland Security
  33. ^ abcdefghNevada Test Site Guide, National Nuclear Security Administration, DOE/NV-715Archived October 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^Gross, Daniel A. (2016). "An Aging Army". Distillations. 2 (1): 26–36. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  35. ^ abNational Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (April 2010). "Plutonium Dispersal Tests at the Nevada Test Site"(PDF). Fact Sheets. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
  36. ^Radiochemistry.org. History. Nuke tests. Nevada Test Site Images (cdrom 3; PDF file)
  37. ^Rogers, Keith (March 5, 2016). "You know Area 51, but just what in the world is Area 6?". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  38. ^National Nuclear Security Administration / Nevada Site Office (January 2011). "Icecap"(PDF). Fact Sheets. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 27, 2011
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevada_Test_Site

Las Vegas

Largest city in Nevada

This article is about the city proper in Nevada. For the metropolitan area, see Las Vegas Valley. For the tourist destination, see Las Vegas Strip. For the city in New Mexico, see Las Vegas, New Mexico. For other uses, see Las Vegas (disambiguation).

"Vegas" redirects here. For other uses, see Vegas (disambiguation).

City in Nevada, United States

Las Vegas, Nevada

From top, left to right: Downtown Las Vegas, World Market Center, Stratosphere Tower Las Vegas, Las Vegas Strip, Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Clark County Government Center.

Etymology: Spanish: Las vegas (English: The meadows)
Nickname(s): 

"Vegas",[1] "Sin City", "City of Lights", "The Gambling Capital of the World",[2] "The Entertainment Capital of the World", "Capital of Second Chances",[3] "The Marriage Capital of the World", "The Silver City", "America's Playground"

Interactive map of Las Vegas

Coordinates: 36°10′30″N115°08′11″W / 36.17500°N 115.13639°W / 36.17500; -115.13639Coordinates: 36°10′30″N115°08′11″W / 36.17500°N 115.13639°W / 36.17500; -115.13639
CountryUnited States
StateNevada
CountyClark
FoundedMay 15, 1905
IncorporatedMarch 16, 1911
 • TypeCouncil–manager
 • MayorCarolyn Goodman (I)
 • City Council
 • City managerScott D. Adams
 • City141.84 sq mi (367.36 km2)
 • Land141.78 sq mi (367.22 km2)
 • Water0.05 sq mi (0.14 km2)
Elevation2,001 ft (610 m)
 • City641,903
 • Rank26th in the United States
1st in Nevada
 • Density4,527.46/sq mi (1,748.01/km2)
 • Metro

[6]

2,265,461 (29th)
Demonym(s)Las Vegan
Time zoneUTC−8 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
Area code(s)702 & 725
FIPS code32-40000
GNIS feature ID847388
Major airportLAS
Interstate HighwaysI-15, I-515
Other major highwaysUS 93, US 95, SR 159, SR 599, SR 604, CC 215
Websitelasvegasnevada.gov

Las Vegas (; Spanish for "The Meadows"), often known simply as Vegas, is the 26th-most populous city in the United States, the most populous city in the state of Nevada, and the county seat of Clark County. The city anchors the Las Vegas Valley metropolitan area and is the largest city within the greater Mojave Desert.[7] Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city, known primarily for its gambling, shopping, fine dining, entertainment, and nightlife. The Las Vegas Valley as a whole serves as the leading financial, commercial, and cultural center for Nevada.

The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous for its mega casino-hotels and associated activities. It is a top three destination in the United States for business conventions and a global leader in the hospitality industry, claiming more AAA Five Diamond hotels than any other city in the world.[8][9][10] Today, Las Vegas annually ranks as one of the world's most visited tourist destinations.[11][12] The city's tolerance for numerous forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of "Sin City",[13] and has made Las Vegas a popular setting for literature, films, television programs, and music videos.

Las Vegas was settled in 1905 and officially incorporated in 1911. At the close of the 20th century, it was the most populated North American city founded within that century (a similar distinction was earned by Chicago in the 19th century). Population growth has accelerated since the 1960s, and between 1990 and 2000 the population nearly doubled, increasing by 85.2%. Rapid growth has continued into the 21st century, and according to the United States Census Bureau, the city had 641,903 residents in 2020,[5] with a metropolitan population of 2,227,053.[14]

As with most major metropolitan areas, the name of the primary city ("Las Vegas" in this case) is often used to describe areas beyond official city limits. In the case of Las Vegas, this especially applies to the areas on and near the Las Vegas Strip, which are actually located within the unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester.[15][16]

History

Main articles: History of Las Vegas and Timeline of Las Vegas

Southern Paiutesat Moapawearing traditional Paiute basket hats with Paiute cradleboard and rabbit robe

Nomadic Paleo-Indians traveled to Las Vegas 10,000 years ago, leaving behind petroglyphs. Anasazi and Paiute tribes followed at least 2,000 years ago.

A young Mexican scout named Rafael Rivera is credited as the first non-Native American to encounter the valley, in 1829.[17][18][19][20] Trader Antonio Armijo led a 60-man party along the Spanish Trail to Los Angeles, California in 1829.[21][18] The area was named Las Vegas, which is Spanish for "the meadows", as it featured abundant wild grasses, as well as the desert spring waters needed by westward travelers.[22] The year 1844 marked the arrival of John C. Frémont, whose writings helped lure pioneers to the area. Downtown Las Vegas's Fremont Street is named after him.

Eleven years later, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints chose Las Vegas as the site to build a fort halfway between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles, where they would travel to gather supplies. The fort was abandoned several years afterward. The remainder of this Old Mormon Fort can still be seen at the intersection of Las Vegas Boulevard and Washington Avenue.

Las Vegas was founded as a city in 1905, when 110 acres (45 ha) of land adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad tracks were auctioned in what would become the downtown area. In 1911, Las Vegas was incorporated as a city.[23]

1931 was a pivotal year for Las Vegas. At that time, Nevada legalized casino gambling and reduced residency requirements for divorce to six weeks. This year also witnessed the beginning of construction on nearby Hoover Dam. The influx of construction workers and their families helped Las Vegas avoid economic calamity during the Great Depression. The construction work was completed in 1935.

In late 1941, Las Vegas Army Airfield was established. Renamed Nellis Air Force Base in 1950, it is now home to the United States Air Force Thunderbirds aerobatic team.[24]

Following World War II, lavishly decorated hotels, gambling casinos, and big-name entertainment became synonymous with Las Vegas.

This view of downtown Las Vegas shows a mushroom cloudin the background. Scenes such as this were typical during the 1950s. From 1951 to 1962, the government conducted 100 atmospheric tests at the nearby Nevada Test Site.[25]

In 1951, nuclear weapons testing began at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles (105 km) northwest of Las Vegas. During this time, the city was nicknamed the "Atomic City". Residents and visitors were able to witness the mushroom clouds (and were exposed to the fallout) until 1963 when the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty required that nuclear tests be moved underground.[25]

In 1955, the Moulin Rouge Hotel opened and became the first racially integrated casino-hotel in Las Vegas.

The iconic "Welcome to Las Vegas" sign, which has never been located within municipal limits, was created in 1959 by Betty Willis.[26]

During the 1960s, corporations and business tycoons such as Howard Hughes were building and buying hotel-casino properties. Gambling was referred to as "gaming", which transitioned it into a legitimate business.

The year 1995 marked the opening of the Fremont Street Experience, in Las Vegas's downtown area. This canopied five-block area features 12.5 million LED lights and 550,000 watts of sound from dusk until midnight during shows held at the top of each hour.

Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, 2012 was dubbed "The Year of Downtown". Projects worth hundreds of millions of dollars made their debut at this time, including the Smith Center for the Performing Arts, the DISCOVERY Children's Museum, the Mob Museum, the Neon Museum, a new City Hall complex, and renovations for a new Zappos.com corporate headquarters in the old City Hall building.[22][27]

Geography

Astronaut photograph of Las Vegas at night

Las Vegas is situated within Clark County, in a basin on the floor of the Mojave Desert,[28] and is surrounded by mountain ranges on all sides. Much of the landscape is rocky and arid, with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems.[29]

The peaks surrounding Las Vegas reach elevations of over 10,000 feet (3,000 m), and act as barriers to the strong flow of moisture from the surrounding area. The elevation is approximately 2,030 ft (620 m) above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 135.86 sq mi (351.9 km2), of which 135.81 sq mi (351.7 km2) is land and 0.05 sq mi (0.13 km2) (0.03%) is water.

After Alaska and California, Nevada is the third most seismically active state in the U.S. It has been estimated by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) that over the next 50 years, there is a 10–20% chance of an M6.0 or greater earthquake occurring within 50 km (31 mi) of Las Vegas.[30]

Within the city, there are many lawns, trees and other greenery. Due to water resource issues, there has been a movement to encourage xeriscapes. Another part of conservation efforts is scheduled watering days for residential landscaping. A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency grant in 2008 funded a program that analyzed and forecast growth and environmental impacts through the year 2019.

Climate

Las Vegas has a subtropicalhot desert climate (Köppen climate classification: BWh), typical of the Mojave Desert in which it lies. This climate is typified by long, extremely hot summers; warm transitional seasons; and short winters with mild days and cool nights. There is abundant sunshine throughout the year, with an average of 310 sunny days and bright sunshine during 86% of all daylight hours.[31][32] Rainfall is scarce, with an average of 4.2 in (110 mm) dispersed between roughly 26 total rainy days per year.[33] Las Vegas is among the sunniest, driest, and least humid locations in North America, with exceptionally low dew points and humidity that sometimes remain below 10%.[34]

The summer months of June through September are extremely hot, though moderated by extremely low humidity. July is the hottest month, with an average daytime high of 104.5 °F (40.3 °C). On average, 137 days per year reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C), of which 78 days reach 100 °F (38 °C) and 10 days reach 110 °F (43 °C). During the peak intensity of summer, overnight lows frequently remain above 80 °F (27 °C), and occasionally above 85 °F (29 °C).[31] While most summer days are consistently hot, dry, and cloudless, the North American Monsoon sporadically interrupts this pattern and brings more cloud cover, thunderstorms, lightning, increased humidity, and brief spells of heavy rain. The window of opportunity for the monsoon to affect Las Vegas usually falls between July and August, although this is inconsistent and varies considerably in its impact from year to year. Summer in Las Vegas is marked by a significant diurnal variation; while less extreme than other parts of the state, nighttime lows in Las Vegas are often 30 °F (16.7 °C) or more lower than daytime highs.[35]

Las Vegas winters are short and generally very mild, with chilly (but rarely cold) daytime temperatures. As in all seasons, sunshine is abundant. December is both the year's coolest and cloudiest month, with an average daytime high of 56.9 °F (13.8 °C) and sunshine occurring during 78% of its daylight hours. Winter evenings are defined by clear skies and swift drops in temperature after sunset, with overnight minima averaging around 40 °F (4.4 °C) in December and January. Owing to its elevation that ranges from 2,000 to 3,000 feet (610 to 910 m), Las Vegas experiences markedly cooler winters than other areas of the Mojave Desert and the adjacent Sonoran Desert that are closer to sea level. Consequently, the city records freezing temperatures an average of 10 nights per winter. However, it is exceptionally rare for temperatures to reach or fall below 25 °F (−4 °C), or for temperatures to remain below 45 °F (7 °C) for an entire day.[31] Most of the annual precipitation falls during the winter months, but even February, the wettest month, averages only four days of measurable rain. The mountains immediately surrounding the Las Vegas Valley accumulate snow every winter, but significant accumulation within the city is rare, although moderate accumulations do occur every few years. The most recent accumulations occurred on February 18, 2019, when parts of the city received about 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of snow[36] and on February 20 when the city received almost 0.5 inches (1.3 cm).[37] Other recent significant snow accumulations occurred on December 25, 2015, and December 17, 2008.[38] Unofficially, Las Vegas' largest snowfall on record was the 12 inches (30 cm) that fell in 1909.[39]

The highest temperature officially observed for Las Vegas, as measured at McCarran International Airport, is 117 °F (47 °C), reached July 10, 2021, the last of five occasions.[31] Conversely, the lowest temperature was 8 °F (−13 °C), recorded on two days: January 25, 1937, and January 13, 1963.[31] However, the highest temperature ever measured within the city of Las Vegas was 118 °F (48 °C) on July 26, 1931.[40] The official record hot daily minimum is 95 °F (35 °C) on July 19, 2005, and July 1, 2013, while, conversely, the official record cold daily maximum is 28 °F (−2 °C) on January 8 and 21, 1937.[31]

Due to concerns about climate change in the wake of a 2002 drought, daily water consumption has been reduced from 314 US gallons (1,190 l) per resident in 2003 to around 205 US gallons (780 l) in 2015.[41]

Climate data for McCarran International Airport (Paradise, Nevada), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1937–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 77
(25)
87
(31)
92
(33)
99
(37)
109
(43)
117
(47)
117
(47)
116
(47)
114
(46)
103
(39)
87
(31)
78
(26)
117
(47)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 68.7
(20.4)
74.2
(23.4)
84.3
(29.1)
93.6
(34.2)
101.8
(38.8)
110.1
(43.4)
112.9
(44.9)
110.3
(43.5)
105.0
(40.6)
94.6
(34.8)
80.5
(26.9)
67.9
(19.9)
113.6
(45.3)
Average high °F (°C) 58.5
(14.7)
62.9
(17.2)
71.1
(21.7)
78.5
(25.8)
88.5
(31.4)
99.4
(37.4)
104.5
(40.3)
102.8
(39.3)
94.9
(34.9)
81.2
(27.3)
67.1
(19.5)
56.9
(13.8)
80.5
(26.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 49.5
(9.7)
53.5
(11.9)
60.8
(16.0)
67.7
(19.8)
77.3
(25.2)
87.6
(30.9)
93.2
(34.0)
91.7
(33.2)
83.6
(28.7)
70.4
(21.3)
57.2
(14.0)
48.2
(9.0)
70.1
(21.2)
Average low °F (°C) 40.5
(4.7)
44.1
(6.7)
50.5
(10.3)
56.9
(13.8)
66.1
(18.9)
75.8
(24.3)
82.0
(27.8)
80.6
(27.0)
72.4
(22.4)
59.6
(15.3)
47.3
(8.5)
39.6
(4.2)
59.6
(15.3)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 29.8
(−1.2)
32.9
(0.5)
38.7
(3.7)
45.2
(7.3)
52.8
(11.6)
62.2
(16.8)
72.9
(22.7)
70.8
(21.6)
60.8
(16.0)
47.4
(8.6)
35.2
(1.8)
29.0
(−1.7)
27.4
(−2.6)
Record low °F (°C) 8
(−13)
16
(−9)
19
(−7)
31
(−1)
38
(3)
48
(9)
56
(13)
54
(12)
43
(6)
26
(−3)
15
(−9)
11
(−12)
8
(−13)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.56
(14)
0.80
(20)
0.42
(11)
0.20
(5.1)
0.07
(1.8)
0.04
(1.0)
0.38
(9.7)
0.32
(8.1)
0.32
(8.1)
0.32
(8.1)
0.30
(7.6)
0.45
(11)
4.18
(106)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
0.2
(0.51)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)3.1 4.1 2.8 1.6 1.1 0.4 2.5 2.2 1.8 1.7 1.5 3.0 25.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2
Average relative humidity (%) 45.1 39.6 33.1 25.0 21.3 16.5 21.1 25.6 25.0 28.8 37.2 45.0 30.3
Average dew point °F (°C) 22.1
(−5.5)
23.7
(−4.6)
23.9
(−4.5)
24.1
(−4.4)
28.2
(−2.1)
30.9
(−0.6)
40.6
(4.8)
44.1
(6.7)
37.0
(2.8)
30.4
(−0.9)
25.3
(−3.7)
22.3
(−5.4)
29.4
(−1.5)
Mean monthly sunshine hours245.2 246.7 314.6 346.1 388.1 401.7 390.9 368.5 337.1 304.4 246.0 236.0 3,825.3
Percent possible sunshine79 81 85 88 89 92 88 88 91 87 80 78 86
Source: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)[31][33][32]

Nearby communities

  • Boulder City, incorporated
  • Enterprise, unincorporated
  • Henderson, incorporated
  • Lone Mountain, unincorporated
  • North Las Vegas, incorporated
  • Paradise, unincorporated
  • Spring Valley, unincorporated
  • Summerlin South, unincorporated
  • Sunrise Manor, unincorporated
  • Whitney, unincorporated
  • Winchester, unincorporated

Neighborhoods

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
190025
19108003,100.0%
19202,304188.0%
19305,165124.2%
19408,42263.1%
195024,624192.4%
196064,405161.6%
1970125,78795.3%
1980164,67430.9%
1990258,29556.9%
2000478,43485.2%
2010583,75622.0%
2020641,90310.0%
source:[42][43]
2010–2010[5]
Map of racial distribution in Las Vegas, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other(yellow)

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of Las Vegas was as follows:[48]

Source:[49]

The city's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic Whites,[44] have proportionally declined from 72.1% of the population in 1990 to 47.9% in 2010, even as total numbers of all ethnicities have increased with the population. Hispanics or Latinos of any race make up 31.5% of the population. Of those 24.0% are of Mexican, 1.4% of Salvadoran, 0.9% of Puerto Rican, 0.9% of Cuban, 0.6% of Guatemalan, 0.2% of Peruvian, 0.2% of Colombian, 0.2% of Honduran and 0.2% of Nicaraguan descent. [46]

According to research by demographer William H. Frey, using data from the 2010 United States Census, Las Vegas has the second lowest level of black-white segregation of any of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in the United States, after Tucson, Arizona.[50]

Hawaiians and Las Vegans alike sometimes refer to Las Vegas as the "ninth island of Hawaii" because so many Hawaiians have moved to the city.[51]

The 2010 census showed the city contained 583,756 people, 211,689 households, and 117,538 families residing.[52] The population density was 4,222.5/sq mi (1,630.3/km2). There were 190,724 housing units at an average density of 1,683.3/sq mi (649.9/km2).

As of 2006, there were 176,750 households, of which 31.9% had children under age 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.5% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.20.

In the city, the population age distribution was as follows:

  • 25.9% under the age of 18
  • 8.8% from 18 to 24
  • 32.0% from 25 to 44
  • 21.7% from 45 to 64
  • 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older

The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $53,000 and the median income for a family was $58,465.[53] Males had a median income of $35,511 versus $27,554 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,060. About 6.6% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over.

According to a 2004 study, Las Vegas has one of the highest divorce rates.[54][55] The city's high divorce rate is not wholly due to Las Vegans themselves getting divorced. Since divorce is easier in Nevada than in most other states, many people come from across the country for the easier process. Similarly, Nevada marriages are notoriously easy to get. Las Vegas has one of the highest marriage rates of U.S. cities, with many licenses issued to people from outside the area (see Las Vegas weddings).

Economy

The primary drivers of the Las Vegas economy are tourism, gaming, and conventions, which in turn feed the retail and restaurant industries.

Tourism

The major attractions in Las Vegas are the casinos and the hotels, although in recent years other new attractions have begun to emerge.

Most casinos in the downtown area are located on Fremont Street, with The STRAT Hotel, Casino & Skypod as one of the few exceptions. Fremont East, adjacent to the Fremont Street Experience, was granted variances to allow bars to be closer together, similar to the Gaslamp Quarter of San Diego, the goal being to attract a different demographic than the Strip attracts.

Downtown casinos

Main article: Downtown (Nevada gaming area)

The Golden Gate Hotel and Casino, located downtown along the Fremont Street Experience, is the oldest continuously operating hotel and casino in Las Vegas; it opened in 1906 as the Hotel Nevada.

The year 1931 marked the opening of the Northern Club (now the La Bayou).[56][57] The most notable of the early casinos may have been Binion's Horseshoe (now Binion's Gambling Hall and Hotel) while it was run by Benny Binion.

Boyd Gaming has a major presence downtown operating the California Hotel & Casino, the Fremont Hotel & Casino, and the Main Street Casino. The Four Queens also operates downtown along the Fremont Street Experience.

Downtown casinos that have undergone major renovations and revitalization in recent years include the Golden Nugget Las Vegas, The D Las Vegas (formerly Fitzgerald's), the Downtown Grand Las Vegas (formerly Lady Luck), the El Cortez Hotel & Casino, and the Plaza Hotel & Casino.[58]

Las Vegas Strip

Main article: Las Vegas Strip

The center of the gambling and entertainment industry is located on the Las Vegas Strip, outside the city limits in the surrounding unincorporated communities of Paradise and Winchester in Clark County. The largest and most notable casinos and buildings are located there.[59]

Development

See also: List of tallest buildings in Las Vegas

When The Mirage opened in 1989, it started a trend of major resort development on the Las Vegas Strip outside of the city. This resulted in a drop in tourism in the downtown area, but many recent projects have increased the number of visitors to downtown.

An effort has been made by city officials to diversify the economy by attracting health-related, high-tech and other commercial interests. No state tax for individuals or corporations, as well as a lack of other forms of business-related taxes, have aided the success of these efforts.[60]

The Fremont Street Experience was built in an effort to draw tourists back to the area and has been popular since its startup in 1995.

The city purchased 61 acres (25 ha) of property from the Union Pacific Railroad in 1995 with the goal of creating a better draw for more people to the downtown area. In 2004, Las Vegas Mayor Oscar Goodman announced plans for Symphony Park, which could include a mixture of offerings, such as residential space and office buildings.

Already operating in Symphony Park is the Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health (opened in 2010), The Smith Center for the Performing Arts (opened in 2012) and the DISCOVERY Children's Museum (opened in 2013).[61]

On land across from Symphony Park, the World Market Center Las Vegas opened in 2005. It currently encompasses three large buildings with a total of 5.1 million square feet. Trade shows for the furniture and furnishing industries are held there semiannually.

Also located nearby is the Las Vegas North Premium Outlets. With a second expansion, completed in May 2015, the mall currently offers 175 stores.[62]

City offices moved to a new Las Vegas City Hall in February 2013 on downtown's Main Street. The former City Hall building is now occupied by the corporate headquarters for the major online retailer, Zappos.com, which opened downtown in 2013. Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh has taken an interest in the urban area and has contributed $350 million toward a revitalization effort called the Downtown Project.[63][64] Projects funded include Las Vegas's first independent bookstore, The Writer's Block.[65]

Other industries

A number of new industries have moved to Las Vegas in recent decades. Online shoe retailer Zappos.com (now an Amazon subsidiary) was founded in San Francisco but by 2013 had moved its headquarters to downtown Las Vegas. Allegiant Air, a low-cost air carrier, launched in 1997 with its first hub at McCarran International Airport and headquarters in nearby Summerlin.

Planet 13 Holdings, a cannabis company, have opened the world's largest cannabis dispensary in Las Vegas at 112,000 sq ft (10,400 m2).[66][67]

Impact of growth on water supply

A growing population means the Las Vegas Valley used 1.2 billion US gallons (4.5×109 L) more water in 2014 than in 2011. Although water conservation efforts implemented in the wake of a 2002 drought have had some success, local water consumption remains 30 percent more than in Los Angeles, and over three times that of San Francisco metropolitan area residents. The Southern Nevada Water Authority is building a $1.4 billion tunnel and pumping station to bring water from Lake Mead, has purchased water rights throughout Nevada, and has planned a controversial $3.2 billion pipeline across half the state. By law, the Las Vegas Water Service District "may deny any request for a water commitment or request for a water connection if the District has an inadequate supply of water." However, limiting growth on the basis of an inadequate water supply has been unpopular with the casino and building industries.[41]

Culture

Main article: Las Vegas Valley § Culture and the arts

The city is home to several museums, including the Neon Museum (the location for many of the historical signs from Las Vegas's mid-20th century heyday), The Mob Museum, the Las Vegas Natural History Museum, the DISCOVERY Children's Museum, the Nevada State Museum and the Old Las Vegas Mormon Fort State Historic Park.

The city is home to an extensive Downtown Arts District, which hosts numerous galleries and events including the annual Las Vegas Film Festival. "First Friday" is a monthly celebration that includes arts, music, special presentations and food in a section of the city's downtown region called 18b, The Las Vegas Arts District.[68] The festival extends into the Fremont East Entertainment District as well.[69] The Thursday evening prior to First Friday is known in the arts district as "Preview Thursday", which highlights new gallery exhibitions throughout the district.[70]

The Las Vegas Academy of International Studies, Performing and Visual Arts is a Grammy award-winning magnet school located in downtown Las Vegas. The Smith Center for the Performing Arts is situated downtown in Symphony Park and hosts various Broadway shows and other artistic performances.

Las Vegas has earned the moniker "Gambling Capital of the World", as the city currently has the largest number of land-based casinos in the world.[71]

Sports

Main article: Sports in the Las Vegas metropolitan area

See also: Nevada § Sports

The Las Vegas Valley is the home of three major professional teams: the Vegas Golden Knights of the National Hockey League, an expansion team that began play in the 2017–18 NHL season at T-Mobile Arena in nearby Paradise,[72] the Las Vegas Raiders of the National Football leaguewho relocated from Oakland, California in 2020 and play at Allegiant Stadium in Paradise,[73] and the Las Vegas Aces of the Women's National Basketball Association who play at the Mandalay Bay Events Center.

Two minor league sports teams play in the Las Vegas area. The Las Vegas Aviators of the Triple-A West, the Triple-A farm club of the Oakland Athletics, play at Las Vegas Ballpark in nearby Summerlin.[74] The Las Vegas Lights FC of the United Soccer League, play in Cashman Field in Downtown Las Vegas.[75][76]

The mixed martial arts promotion, Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), is headquartered in Las Vegas and also frequently holds fights in the city at T-Mobile Arena and at the UFC Apex training facility near the headquarters.[77]

List of teams

Major professional teams

Minor professional teams

Amateur teams

College teams

Parks and recreation

Las Vegas has 68 parks. The city owns the land for, but does not operate, four golf courses: Angel Park Golf Club, Desert Pines Golf Club, Durango Hills Golf Club, and the Las Vegas Municipal Golf Course. It is also responsible for 123 playgrounds, 23 softball fields, 10 football fields, 44 soccer fields, 10 dog parks, six community centers, four senior centers, 109 skate parks, and six swimming pools.[78]

Government

The city of Las Vegas government operates as a council–manager government. The Mayor sits as a Council member-at-large and presides over all of the city council meetings. If the Mayor cannot preside over a City Council meeting, then the Mayor Pro-Tem is the presiding officer of the meeting until the Mayor returns to his/her seat. The City Manager is responsible for the administration and the day-to-day operations of all municipal services and city departments. The City Manager maintains intergovernmental relationships with federal, state, county and other local governments.

Much of the Las Vegas metropolitan area is split into neighboring incorporated cities or unincorporated communities. Approximately 700,000 people live in unincorporated areas governed by Clark County, and another 465,000 live in incorporated cities such as North Las Vegas, Henderson and Boulder City. Las Vegas and Clark County share a police department, the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department, which was formed after a 1973 merger of the Las Vegas Police Department and the Clark County Sheriff's Department. North Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City and some colleges have their own police departments.

A PaiuteIndian reservation occupies about 1 acre (0.40 ha) in the downtown area.

Las Vegas, home to the Lloyd D. George Federal District Courthouse and the Regional Justice Center, draws numerous companies providing bail, marriage, divorce, tax, incorporation and other legal services.

City council

Education

Main article: Las Vegas Valley § Education

Primary and secondary schools

Main article: Clark County School District

Primary and secondary public education is provided by the Clark County School District, which is the fifth most populous school district in the nation. Students totaled 314,653 in grades K-12 for school year 2013–2014.[88]

Colleges and universities

The College of Southern Nevada (the third largest community college in the United States by enrollment) is the main higher education facility in the city. Other institutions include the University of Nevada School of Medicine, with a campus in the city, and the for-profit private school Le Cordon Bleu College of Culinary Arts. Educational opportunities exist around the city; among them are the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Nevada State College run by the Nevada System of Higher Education, Desert Research Institute, The International Academy of Design & Technology Las Vegas and Touro University Nevada.

Media

Newspapers

Las Vegas Review-Journalsign
  • Las Vegas Review-Journal, the area's largest daily newspaper, is published every morning. It was formed in 1909 but has roots back to 1905. It is the largest newspaper in Nevada and is ranked as one of the top 25 newspapers in the United States by circulation. In 2000, the Review-Journal installed the largest newspaper printing press in the world. It cost $40 million, weighs 910 tons and consists of 16 towers.[89] The newspaper is owned by casino magnate Sheldon Adelson, who purchased it for $140 million in December 2015. In 2018, the Review-Journal received the Sigma Delta Chi Award from the Society of Professional Journalists for reporting the Oct 1 mass shooting on the Las Vegas Strip. In 2018, Editor and Publisher magazine named the Review-Journal as one of 10 newspapers in the United States "doing it right".[90]
  • Las Vegas Sun, a daily 8-page newspaper independently published but the print edition distributed as a section inside the Review-Journal. The Sun is owned by the Greenspun family and is affiliated with Greenspun Media Group. It was founded independently in 1950 and in 1989 entered into a Joint Operating Agreement with the Review-Journal, which runs through 2040. The Sun has been described as "politically liberal."[91] In 2009, the Sun was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for coverage of the high death rate of construction workers on the Las Vegas Strip amid lax enforcement of regulations.
  • Las Vegas Weekly is a free alternative weekly newspaper based in Henderson, Nevada. It covers Las Vegas arts, entertainment, culture and news. Las Vegas Weekly was founded in 1992 and is published by Greenspun Media Group.

Broadcast

Las Vegas is served by 22 television stations and 46 radio stations. The area is also served by two NOAA Weather Radio transmitters (162.55 MHz located in Boulder City and 162.40 MHz located on Potosi Mountain).

Magazines

Transportation

Main article: Transportation in Las Vegas

Regional Transportation Commission (RTC) provides public transportation.
Inside Terminal 3 at McCarran International Airport in Paradise

RTC Transit is a public transportation system providing bus service throughout Las Vegas, Henderson, North Las Vegas and other areas of the valley. Inter-city bus service to and from Las Vegas is provided by Greyhound, BoltBus, Orange Belt Stages, Tufesa, and several smaller carriers.[92]Amtrak trains have not served Las Vegas since the service via the Desert Wind at Las Vegas station ceased in 1997, but Amtrak California operates Thruway Motorcoach dedicated service between the city and its passenger rail stations in Bakersfield, California, as well as Los Angeles Union Station via Barstow.[93]

The Union Pacific Railroad is the only Class I railroad providing rail freight service to the city. Until 1997, the Amtrak Desert Wind train service ran through Las Vegas using the Union Pacific Railroad tracks.

In March 2010, the RTC launched bus rapid transit link in Las Vegas called the Strip & Downtown Express with limited stops and frequent service that connects downtown Las Vegas, the Strip and the Las Vegas Convention Center. Shortly after the launch, the RTC dropped the ACE name.[94]

In 2016, 77.1 percent of working Las Vegas residents (those living in the city, but not necessarily working in the city) commuted by driving alone. About 11 percent commuted via carpool, 3.9 percent used public transportation, and 1.4 percent walked. About 2.3 percent of Las Vegas commuters used all other forms of transportation, including taxi, bicycle, and motorcycle. About 4.3 of working Las Vegas residents worked at home.[95] In 2015, 10.2 percent of city of Las Vegas households were without a car, which increased slightly to 10.5 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Las Vegas averaged 1.63 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household.[96]

With some exceptions, including Las Vegas Boulevard, Boulder Highway (SR 582) and Rancho Drive (SR 599), the majority of surface streets in Las Vegas are laid out in a grid along Public Land Survey Systemsection lines. Many are maintained by the Nevada Department of Transportation as state highways. The street numbering system is divided by the following streets:

  • Westcliff Drive, US 95 Expressway, Fremont Street and Charleston Boulevard divide the north–south block numbers from west to east.
  • Las Vegas Boulevard divides the east–west streets from the Las Vegas Strip to near the Stratosphere, then Main Street becomes the dividing line from the Stratosphere to the North Las Vegas border, after which the Goldfield Street alignment divides east and west.
  • On the east side of Las Vegas, block numbers between Charleston Boulevard and Washington Avenue are different along Nellis Boulevard, which is the eastern border of the city limits.

Interstates 15, 515, and US 95 lead out of the city in four directions. Two major freeways – Interstate 15 and Interstate 515/U.S. Route 95 – cross in downtown Las Vegas. I-15 connects Las Vegas to Los Angeles, and heads northeast to and beyond Salt Lake City. I-515 goes southeast to Henderson, beyond which US 93 continues over the Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge towards Phoenix, Arizona. US 95 connects the city to northwestern Nevada, including Carson City and Reno. US 93 splits from I-15 northeast of Las Vegas and goes north through the eastern part of the state, serving Ely and Wells. US 95 heads south from US 93 near Henderson through far eastern California. A partial beltway has been built, consisting of Interstate 215 on the south and Clark County 215 on the west and north. Other radial routes include Blue Diamond Road (SR 160) to Pahrump and Lake Mead Boulevard (SR 147) to Lake Mead.

East–west roads, north to south[97]

North–south roads, west to east

McCarran International Airport handles international and domestic flights into the Las Vegas Valley. The airport also serves private aircraft and freight/cargo flights. Most general aviation traffic uses the smaller North Las Vegas Airport and Henderson Executive Airport.

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Las Vegas

See also

Notes

  1. ^Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.

References

  1. ^Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Merriam-Webster. 1997. p. 633. ISBN .
  2. ^"Words and Their Stories: Nicknames for New Orleans and Las Vegas". VOA News. March 13, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2012.
  3. ^Lovitt, Rob (December 15, 2009). "Will the real Las Vegas please stand up?". NBC News. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
  4. ^"2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  5. ^ abc"QuickFacts: Las Vegas city, Nevada". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  6. ^"2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  7. ^"Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  8. ^Jones, Charisse (August 21, 2013). "Top convention destinations: Orlando, Chicago, Las Vegas". USA Today.
  9. ^Trejos, Nancy (January 17, 2014). "AAA chooses Five Diamond hotels, restaurants for 2014". USA Today. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  10. ^"Top 5 Cities to Get Hired in Hospitality". Hcareers.com. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  11. ^"Overseas Visitation Estimates for U.S. States, Cities, and Census Regions: 2013"(PDF). International Visitation in the United States. US Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, US Department of Commerce. May 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2014.[dead link]
  12. ^"World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions". Travel + Leisure. November 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  13. ^Schwartz, David G. (December 10, 2018). "Why Las Vegas Is Still America's Most Sinful City". Forbes. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  14. ^"Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Las Vegas city, Nevada". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  15. ^Schoenmann, Joe (February 3, 2010). "Vegas not alone in wanting in on .vegas". Las Vegas Sun.
  16. ^"County Turns 100 July 1, Dubbed 'Centennial Day'" (Press release). Clark County, Nevada. June 23, 2009. Retrieved February 5, 2010.
  17. ^Lake, Richard (December 17, 2008). "Road Warrior Q&A: Foliage removed for widening". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  18. ^ abPonce, Victor Miguel. "Las Vegas, how did Las Vegas get its name, groundwater depletion". San Diego State University. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  19. ^"History of Las Vegas". Las Vegas Online Entertainment Guide. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  20. ^Land, Barbara; Land, Myrick (March 1, 2004). A Short History of Las Vegas. University of Nevada Press. p. 4. ISBN . Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  21. ^"FAQs/History". Clark County, Nevada. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  22. ^ ab"History". City of Las Vegas. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  23. ^Federal Writers' Project (1941). Origin of Place Names: Nevada(PDF). Works Progress Administration. p. 16.
  24. ^"Home". United States Air Force Thunderbirds. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  25. ^ abSimon, Steven; Bouville, Andre (January–February 2006). "Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests and Cancer Risks". American Scientist. 94 (1): 48. doi:10.1511/2006.57.48. Archived from the original on July 9, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  26. ^Brown, Patricia Leigh (January 13, 2005). "A Neon Come-Hither, Still Able to Flirt". The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  27. ^Segall, Eli; Subrina Hudson (October 22, 2020). "Zappos' new landlord is a familiar face". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  28. ^"Geography of Las Vegas, Nevada". geography.about.com. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
  29. ^"Flood control a success". Las Vegas Review-Journal. December 28, 2010. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  30. ^"Loss-Estimation Modeling of Earthquake Scenarios for Each County in Nevada Using HAZUS-MH"(PDF). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology/University of Nevada, Reno. February 23, 2006. p. 65. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Las_Vegas

Wiki fallout nevada

Fallout: New Vegas

2010 action role-playing video game

2010 video game

Fallout: New Vegas is a 2010 post-apocalypticaction role-playing video game developed by Obsidian Entertainment and published by Bethesda Softworks. It was announced in April 2009 and released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360 on October 19, 2010. A spin-off of the Fallout series, the game is set in a post-apocalyptic open world environment that encompasses a region consisting of Arizona, California, and Nevada. It is set in a world that deviated onto an alternate timeline thanks to Atomic Age technology, which eventually led to a global nuclear apocalypse in the year 2077 in an event referred to as "The Great War", caused by a major conflict between the U.S. and China over natural resources. The main story of New Vegas takes place in the year 2281, four years after the events of Fallout 3 and 204 years after the bombs fell. It is not a direct sequel, but does mark the return of several elements found in Fallout 2.

Players take control of a character known as the Courier. While transporting a package across the Mojave Desert to the city of New Vegas, what used to be Las Vegas, the Courier is ambushed, robbed of the package, shot, and buried in a cemetery. Ultimately the Courier is dug out and recovers from their wound. The Courier then begins a journey to find their would-be killer and recover the package, makes friends and enemies among various warring factions, and ultimately becomes caught up in a conflict that will determine who controls New Vegas and the Mojave Wasteland. New Vegas received positive reviews, with critics praising the game's writing, quests, and improved gameplay, though it was criticized for its glitches and bugs on launch. It was a commercial success, shipping more than 5 million copies, and is estimated to have sold around 12 million copies worldwide. The game received a Golden Joystick Award for "RPG of the Year" in 2011 and was nominated for two BAFTA Awards (Best Strategy Game and Best Story), as well as a NAVGTR Award for Supporting Performance in a Drama (Felicia Day). It has since obtained a cult following, with some critics and audiences referring to the game as the best in the Fallout series[1][2] as well as one of the greatest RPGs of all time.[3][4][5][6][7]

Gameplay[edit]

See also: Fallout 3 § Gameplay

Much like Fallout 3, players can switch from the first-person perspective, as shown here, to a much improved third-person viewpoint in New Vegas

While gameplay from Fallout 3 was retained for Fallout: New Vegas, Obsidian Entertainment worked upon providing the game with improvements upon existing elements while introducing some old and new features to the series. Some improvements and new features are included. Combat is improved upon, with the V.A.T.S. system being updated with several new V.A.T.S.-specific attacks, and a number of kill animations being made for several of the game's melee weapons. The response and accuracy given from weapons was also improved. Players can use the iron sights on firearms, with the exception of certain larger guns and some energy weapons.[8][9][10][11] The third-person perspective in the game was redesigned to be more "over the shoulder" than it had been in Fallout 3. The Character Creation section of the game was refined to take less time than Fallout 3, with players able to skip the tutorials and proceed across the Wasteland once their character is set up. The option to make any last minute changes to their character occurs when the player steps beyond the boundaries of the starting location of Goodsprings. More Perks were added to the game to provide greater options for improving the player's characters upon leveling up. The Perk system itself changed, allowing a Perk at every other level instead of every level like in earlier games. This prevents the player from having an overly powerful character early in the game. More weapons were added to the game, including the 9 mm Pistol, the Single Shotgun, Powder Charges, Dynamite, Trail Carbine, and Grenade Launcher. Each weapon is intended to serve a specific and tactical role within the game.[11] The "Big Guns" and "Small Guns" skills are consolidated into one skill, "Guns". A skill, Survival, is introduced. This skill affects how much health is restored by food and drink. Skills have a larger effect on conversation choices; whether a dialogue option will succeed or fail is shown up front, and entirely dependent on Skill level, rather than both skill and chance as was the case in Fallout 3.[10] Players can receive a temporary boost to a skill by reading a skill magazine corresponding to it, which can be found around the Mojave Wasteland or purchased from vendors, the effects of which can be further enhanced by certain Perks. Players can gamble. They can do this by visiting casinos, buying chips with the three major currencies in the games, and playing either blackjack, slots, or roulette within them. Players can also play a card game called Caravan, which was specifically designed for the game and has its own rules, and can be played with certain people outside of the casinos.[12][13]

Crafting and weapon customization[edit]

Although players could craft items in Fallout 3, these items were limited to a few unique weapons. With New Vegas, crafting was expanded to allow the creation of food, drink, drugs, and ammunition along with unique weapons. Crafting can be done at workbenches, reloading benches, hot plates and campfires, and requires specific components as well as a sufficient skill level; for instance, cooking food at campfires requires the player to have a sufficient Survival skill level to do so. Some special items cannot be made until their recipes/schematics are found. Players can harvest plants to use in recipes. In addition to crafting, players can modify weapons with special firearm modifications. Such modifications can improve the rate of fire or the size of the magazine, or add a mounted telescopic sight to allow for greater range. Modifications for firearms often require either scavenging for them in the Mojave or purchasing them from vendors.[8]

Reputation[edit]

Because of the large number of factions created for the game, developers reintroduced the reputation system that was first used in Fallout 2 and had been absent in Fallout 3. Much like the Karma system, which tracks a player's "good" and "bad" deeds, a player's standing with a faction or settlement can change depending on how they interact with them and what decisions they make. If, for example, players help a faction or settlement, their reputation with them improves in all locations controlled by that faction or settlement; opting to kill their members or citizens will cause a gain of infamy with that faction or settlement. Unlike the Karma system, any reputation fame or infamy gained is permanent and irreversible and if a player has a "Wild Child" reputation with a faction it is unchangeable. The only exception is when the NCR and Legion grant one-time exemptions for past wrongdoings, which resets infamy to 0. The type of reputation the player has with each faction or settlement affects how non-player characters (NPCs) behave towards them; a good reputation might make completing some quests easier, provide discounts with the faction or settlement's vendors, and cause faction members to offer gifts; a bad reputation may lead to the faction refusing to help the player, attacking them on sight, or sending assassins to gun them down.[14]

Companions[edit]

Companions in New Vegas received far more depth than the companions from Fallout 3, through the use of the Companion Wheel. Through the Wheel, players can switch a companion's tactics in combat, including their behavior and how they attack, as well as dismiss them, treat them for injuries, access their inventory and talk with them. Players are capable of having two companions with them at any one time – one humanoid and one non-humanoid. Companions can confer a unique Perk or advantage and have the opportunity to be improved by completing a special quest related to them.[11] They can be sent directly to the Lucky 38 Presidential Suite upon being dismissed rather than returning to their original location. Each companion was intended to represent a different style of combat. There are a total of eight permanent companions.

Hardcore mode[edit]

An optional difficulty setting included in New Vegas is the Hardcore mode, which delivers more realism and intensity to the playing environment. While the standard adjustable difficulty level settings only affect combat difficulty, Hardcore mode adds statistics and encourages the player to consider resource management and combat tactics. Game director Josh Sawyer stated that the mode was inspired by several different Fallout 3mods.[15] In this mode, the following occurs:[16][17] All healing items, including food and water, do not heal the player instantly but work over a short period of time. RadAway takes time to gradually decrease radiation poisoning, rather than instantly. Stimpaks can no longer heal crippled limbs. Players must either use Doctor's Bags, sleep in an owned or rented bed, use the chem Hydra, or visit a doctor to heal limbs. Ammunition has weight, reducing the amount that can be carried. Players must eat, drink, and sleep in order to avoid starvation, dehydration, and exhaustion, respectively; failure to do so confers a steady decrease in certain skills and eventually leads to death if untreated. Companions can be killed upon being reduced to zero hit points, rather than losing consciousness. Completing the game on this mode (from start to finish as the mode can be turned on at any point during the game) results in either an achievement (Xbox 360[18]/Steam[19]) or trophy (PlayStation 3)[20] being awarded.

Plot[edit]

Setting[edit]

Main article: Fallout (series)

Flag of the New California Republic

Fallout: New Vegas takes place during the year 2281 within the region surrounding the former city of Las Vegas (now called "New Vegas"), around four years after the events of Fallout 3, and roughly around 204 years after the Great War of 2077. At the time the game begins, three major powers seek control over New Vegas and its surroundings – the New California Republic (NCR), Caesar's Legion, and Mr. House. Since their last appearance in Fallout 2, the NCR has become overextended and mismanaged, but their expansion eastwards has allowed them to gain control of the majority of territories in the Mojave, with the only threat to their expansion coming from the slave-driving, Roman army-styled forces of Caesar's Legion, led by their leader Caesar (voiced by John Doman), who have conquered and united 86 tribes further to the east, and plan to conquer New Vegas. Four years before the start of the game, both sides came into conflict at the Hoover Dam, a major landmark that supplies power to New Vegas,[10] and which both sides seek control over. The battle resulted in a narrow victory for the NCR, but with Boulder City being leveled in the process. As both sides prepare for a second, inevitable conflict over the dam, Mr. House, a mysterious businessman who presides over New Vegas as its de facto leader with an army of "Securitron" security robots, also seeks control of the dam while ensuring neither side gains control, and is moving towards the final stages of his plans.

Much of the game takes place in the Mojave Wasteland, which encompasses parts of the former states of California, Nevada, and Arizona. Along with the three main factions, the region has a number of minor factions. These include the Boomers, an isolationist and xenophobic tribe of heavily armed former Vault dwellers who have taken shelter at Nellis Air Force Base; the Powder Gangers, a violent group of escaped convicts from the NCR Correctional Facility near Primm; the Great Khans, a tribe of drug dealers and raiders descended from the remnants of the New Khans in Fallout 2; and the Brotherhood of Steel, technology-craving remnants of the U.S. Army who are attempting to secure any technology that could cause significant harm. Along with the Hoover Dam and Nellis Air Force Base, the region has additional landmarks, including its own vaults and the HELIOS One solar energy plant.[17]

Story[edit]

The protagonist is a courier working for the Mojave Express, a postal service that serves New Vegas and the surrounding Mojave Desert. The game begins as the Courier is ambushed by a mobster named Benny (voiced by Matthew Perry) en route to New Vegas to deliver a mysterious item known as the "Platinum Chip". Benny shoots the Courier in the head and leaves them for dead by burying them, taking the Chip for himself. The Courier is then dug out and rescued by a Securitron named Victor (voiced by William Sadler) and brought back to good health by Doc Mitchell (voiced by Michael Hogan) in Goodsprings.[10] The Courier embarks on a journey across the Mojave Wasteland to locate and confront Benny and get the Platinum Chip.

The game proceeds according to the Courier's decisions and involves many different events, factions, and characters. The main storyline follows the Courier's pursuit of Benny to both settle the score and retrieve the Platinum Chip. Along the way, the Courier encounters many groups of people with various problems that they can choose to assist with, ignore, or otherwise sabotage, resulting in positive or negative karma. Eventually, after finding Benny and the Chip, the Courier finds themselves in the middle of a conflict between three major factions: Caesar's Legion, a group of Roman-esque slavers, the New California Republic (NCR), an expansionist democratic federation, and Mr. House (voiced by René Auberjonois), the enigmatic de facto ruler of New Vegas, in command of an army of Securitron robots that patrol the city. Each of the three sides aims to control the Hoover Dam, which is still operational and supplying the Southwest with power and clean, non-irradiated water; thus, control of the dam means effective control of the region. It is revealed that Mr. House, a human from before the Great War and surviving via a contained life support chamber, ordered the Platinum Chip's delivery the day of the war. The Chip is a data storage device with a program that can upgrade the Securitrons to a greater level of combat effectiveness, and was stolen by Benny as part of a scheme to take over House's security and claim New Vegas for himself with the help of a reprogrammed Securitron named Yes Man (voiced by Dave Foley).

The Courier is notified that Caesar's Legion is attacking Hoover Dam, and they must take part to decide the outcome. As the Legion strikes the Dam, led by the fearsome Legate Lanius, the NCR defends its position under General Lee Oliver. Depending on the faction sided with up to the battle, the Courier will either destroy the Dam so no faction can claim it, conquer it for Caesar's Legion, defend it for the NCR or connect the dam's systems to House's network so either he or Yes Man can take control. The game concludes with a narrated slideshow showing and explaining the results of the Courier's actions, the battle for Hoover Dam deciding the faction that comes to power over New Vegas and the Mojave, and the fates of the various other factions based on how the player negotiated with them and which of the major factions emerged dominant.

Endings[edit]

The player faces a choice to determine the fate of the Mojave Wasteland.

  • Yes Man (Independent) – the Courier will use Benny's reprogrammed Securitron named Yes Man to take over Mr. House's network and take Hoover Dam for themselves. The Courier must either convince General Oliver, and the Legate, to withdraw, or they can kill them instead. The Courier will proceed to take control of Hoover Dam, while ensuring the independence of the Mojave from the NCR, Caesar's Legion, and Mr. House.
  • Mr. House – siding with Mr. House will lead the Courier to enter the control room in Hoover Dam and install the override chip in order to power the Securitron Army. The Courier must either convince General Oliver, and the Legate, to stand down or they can kill them instead. Mr. House and his Securitrons drive both the NCR and the Legion out of Hoover Dam, taking control of it, while still running New Vegas according to House's vision.
  • Caesar's Legion – siding with the Legion will lead the Courier to help attack Hoover Dam. The Courier must enter Oliver's compound where they have the choice to either convince him to retreat for the sake of his men, or they can kill him instead. The Legion seizes Hoover Dam, forcing the NCR to retreat, allowing them to gain control over New Vegas and the rest of the Mojave Wasteland.
  • New California Republic – siding with the NCR will lead the Courier to defend Hoover Dam from the Legion. The Courier will then lead an attack on the Legate's camp where they have the choice to either convince the Legate to peacefully withdraw, or they can kill him. The NCR emerges from the battle decisively triumphant and annexes New Vegas along with the entire Mojave Wasteland.

Development[edit]

"Welcome to New Vegas" promotion at PAX2010

In 2004, Bethesda Softworks purchased the license to develop and publish Fallout 3, as well as an option to create two sequels, from Interplay Entertainment.[21] Three years later they bought the Falloutintellectual property.[22] Bethesda abandoned the original gameplay style of previous Fallout titles; instead of an isometric game with action point/turn-based combat, Bethesda's Fallout 3 was a fully 3D game with real-time combat as well as the action point-based V.A.T.S. system.[23][24][25]

Fallout 3 was a critical and commercial success upon its release in 2008,[23] and Bethesda commissioned a sequel. With their own developers busy working on The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim Bethesda reached out to Obsidian Entertainment, a company founded by several former members of Interplay's original Fallout developers Black Isle Studios, to develop the game. Bethesda and Obsidian decided to create a game that would continue the "West Coast" story rather than the plot of Fallout 3.[23][26] Bethesda rejected Obsidian's idea to set the game between the events of Fallout 2 and Fallout 3, but they did approve of setting the game in Las Vegas.[26][27]

Fallout: New Vegas was announced in April 2009.[28] Obsidian's development team included former Interplay/Black Isle employees Josh Sawyer as director and Chris Avellone as a writer and director of the game's downloadable content.[15][29] The plot of New Vegas takes heavy inspiration from the original Fallout 3 that Black Isle developed, commonly known by its codename "Van Buren",[30] which Sawyer also directed prior to its cancellation.[31] The most notable example is the inclusion of Caesar's Legion, a faction originally created for Van Buren.[30][32] Obsidian included other factions from previous Fallout games and avoided writing any faction as entirely good or evil, but instead as potential rivals depending on what path the player decided to pursue.[30][32]

The game had a somewhat short development cycle of 18 months.[33]New Vegas is similar to Fallout 3, in that both games use the Gamebryo engine, yet it improved on the previous installment's source code, with some graphics rendering improvements and new art assets, while reworking the engine to accommodate the extra lights and effects of the Las Vegas Strip.[32][34] Obsidian were unfamiliar with the Gamebryo engine and had to request the help of an Oblivionmodder named Jorge Salgado.[35] Obsidian refined the real-time shooting mechanics and added iron-sights aiming to make playing without V.A.T.S. a more viable option than it was in Fallout 3.[31][36] One PC version of the game relies on Steamworks for online functions, such as achievements and cloud save storage, as well as digital rights management (DRM).[37] A version without DRM was made available by GoG.com on June 1, 2017.[38]

Producer Jason Bergman announced the involvement of several actors, including Ron Perlman as the game's narrator and Wayne Newton as radio DJ "Mr. New Vegas".[39] He confirmed that the game would include voice acting from Matthew Perry, Zachary Levi, Kris Kristofferson, Danny Trejo, Michael Dorn and Felicia Day. The team brought on casting director and voice producer Timothy Cubbison to oversee the actor selection and voice production. The game established the new record for the most lines of dialogue in a single-player action role-playing game. New Vegas contains around 65,000 lines of dialogue, beating its predecessor and previous record holder Fallout 3 which contained 40,000 lines of dialogue.[40]

Fallout 3 composer Inon Zur composed the score.[41] It features three major in-game radio stations, spanning several genres of music in the radio waves: country, bluegrass, popular music from the 1940s and 1950s, jazz and classical.[11] Each station has a set track list which repeats randomly.[42] Music from the first two Fallout games, composed by Mark Morgan, is used in the game as well.[43][44]

On February 4, 2010, Obsidian Entertainment released the Fallout: New Vegas teaser trailer. A second trailer was shown on GameTrailers from E3 on June 11, 2010.[45]

Release[edit]

Bethesda announced four pre-order bonus packs giving specific in-game items, they include the "Classic", "Tribal", "Caravan" and "Mercenary" packs available when pre-ordering at specific outlets,[46] all of the listed pre-order packs were later made available for purchase on September 27, 2011. The Collector's Edition was revealed on May 11, 2010.[47] It was distributed worldwide and is available for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, and Xbox 360.[47] Its enclosed contents include seven real clay poker chips from the Fallout: New Vegas casinos, a deck of cards each with a character on them with information on that person, a graphic novel leading up to the events of New Vegas, a Lucky 38 large Platinum Chip replica, and a making-of documentary.[47]

Fallout: New Vegas was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 on October 19, 2010, in North America, October 21, 2010, in Australia, and October 22, 2010, in Europe.[48][49] Within hours of the game's release on October 19, 2010, players of Fallout: New Vegas began reporting a variety of technical issues (saved games becoming corrupted, the game freezing, players becoming stuck within the terrain, and random NPCs appearing behind the player, initiating combat out of context).[50][51]Bethesda Game Studios stated that they, in conjunction with Obsidian, were actively working on an update for release "as soon as possible" to address in-game issues. They urged customers to keep their copies of New Vegas rather than return them to stores, stating that providing the best possible experience to their users was a priority.

Within a week of the original release, a patch was available for the PC, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3 versions of the game, which contained over 200 quest and scripting-related fixes.[52] The update released on December 14, 2010, has fixed further glitches and save game problems, including companion-related bugs.[53] Subsequent updates were released in February and April that corrected numerous bugs and gameplay issues. A patch released on July 5, 2011 causes the game to automatically create a save prior to the endgame sequence, allowing single-save players to play through the downloadable content without creating a new game.[54] The user community has created community patches to fix some remaining issues.

The game engine has had major performance issues on the PlayStation 3, leading to unplayable frame rates when the save game file becomes large following extended play, or sometimes when downloadable content is installed. Similar issues plagued The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim, but a performance patch to improve New Vegas was not implemented. Sawyer stated that the issue involves the core engine and cannot be patched easily.[56][57]

Downloadable content[edit]

On October 18, 2010, Bethesda Softworks announced that downloadable content (DLC) would be available for New Vegas, in keeping with its predecessor Fallout 3. Six add-on packs have been released. The six add-ons are titled Dead Money, Honest Hearts, Old World Blues, Lonesome Road, Gun Runners' Arsenal, and Courier's Stash. The combined effect of the DLC is to raise the level cap from 30 to 50.

Dead Money[edit]

The first add-on pack was released for the Xbox 360 on December 21, 2010,[58][59] and for PlayStation 3 and PC (via Steam) on February 22, 2011.[60][61] In Dead Money, the Courier is captured by an insane ex-Brotherhood of Steel leader known as Father Elijah and must work alongside three[58] other captives to find the fabled treasure of the Sierra Madre Casino, concealed from the world by a deadly toxic cloud.[58] The pack adds achievements/trophies, weapons, perks, terrain, enemies, and decisions for the player,[58][59] as well as raising the level cap by five.[58] It is the only one of the four story add-ons that cannot be revisited after the completion of its main quest line.[62]

Honest Hearts[edit]

The second pack was released on May 17, 2011, on Xbox Live and Steam and June 2, 2011, on the PlayStation Network due to the April–May outage.[63] In Honest Hearts, the Courier takes part in a trading expedition to Utah's Zion National Park after joining on with The Happy Trails Caravan, which is attacked and destroyed by tribal raiders.[64] While trying to return to the Mojave, the Courier becomes involved in conflicts between the tribes, a "New Canaanite" (post-apocalyptic incarnation of Mormonism) missionary, and a person known as the "Burned Man", Caesar's former Legate, who, after losing the first battle of Hoover Dam, was covered in pitch, set on fire, and thrown into the Grand Canyon.[64] The pack adds achievements/trophies, perks, terrain, items, enemies and decisions for the player, as well as raising the level cap by five.

Old World Blues[edit]

In Old World Blues, the Courier is abducted and unwittingly becomes a lab rat in a science experiment gone awry and discovers how some of the Mojave's mutated creatures and dangerous technology came to exist. Old World Blues takes place in the Pre-War research centers of Big Mountain, known colloquially as "the Big Empty" or "Big MT". The player can choose to either turn on their kidnappers, or join with them to fight a greater threat.[65] This pack adds achievements/trophies, perks, a vast area to explore, and raises the level cap by five like the previous two packs. Old World Blues was released on July 19, 2011.[66]

Lonesome Road[edit]

In Lonesome Road, the Courier is contacted by Ulysses, an ex-Legionary and courier who, upon seeing the Courier's name on a list of possible deliverers, refused to deliver the Platinum Chip that was ultimately responsible for the Courier's attempted murder.[65] Ulysses was a character whose involvement in the story had been hinted since New Vegas' initial release, and Lonesome Road concludes his story, as well as that of the Courier.[67] Initially, Lonesome Road was planned to be released in August 2011; however, the add-on was delayed until September 20 for unspecified reasons.[67][68]

Gun Runners' Arsenal and Courier's Stash[edit]

On September 27, 2011,[69] Bethesda released two content packs titled Gun Runners' Arsenal and Courier's Stash.[67][69]Gun Runners' Arsenal adds various weapons, like the Katana, Time Bomb and Chainsaw, and weapon mods, like suppressors, scopes, laser sights and stacked magazines, along with new ammo types, which can be found throughout the game world.[67][69]Courier's Stash contains all bonus content that was previously only available for pre-ordering the game (the "Caravan Pack", "Classic Pack", "Mercenary Pack" and "Tribal Pack").[67][69]

Ultimate Edition[edit]

On November 3, 2011, Bethesda announced Fallout: New Vegas – Ultimate Edition, which includes the game and all of its downloadable content. It was released worldwide throughout February 2012.[70] It was released on February 7, 2012 in North America and February 10 for Europe.

Mods[edit]

Like most Bethesda games, Fallout: New Vegas features a very large modding community with several high profile mods.

J.E. Sawyer's mod[edit]

On December 29, 2011, Fallout: New Vegas director Josh "J.E." Sawyer released an unofficial mod for the PC version. The mod adjusts the maximum level to 35, halves the rate of increase in player experience points, reduces base player health, reduces the base weight a player can carry, defines certain characters as good or evil rather than neutral, and makes various other adjustments. These are changes that Sawyer wanted to be included in the game, but they were not released as an official update. This mod requires all add-on packs to work.[71][72]

Tale of Two Wastelands[edit]

Tale of Two Wastelands is a total conversion mod for Fallout: New Vegas that merges the entire content of Fallout 3 and its DLC and New Vegas into one game. The mod implements features introduced in New Vegas into Fallout3, such as the Companion Wheel, crafting recipes, and weapon mods. Players can freely traverse between the two games on a single save file, keeping all of their items and their progression between game worlds.[73][74][75][76]

New California[edit]

Main article: Fallout: New California

Fallout: New California (originally named Project Brazil) is a massive fan-made overhaul mod for Fallout: New Vegas by Radian-Helix Media, adding an all-new feature-length campaign and world space, complete with voiced characters, quests, companions, factions, and multiple endings, set in the California Wastelands of the San Bernardino Mountains.[77]

The Frontier[edit]

Fallout: The Frontier is a massive fan-made overhaul mod for Fallout: New Vegas set in the ruins of Portland, Oregon, under nuclear winter. Under development for seven years, the mod has been described as the largest-ever for a Fallout game. It features a game-length campaign with three questlines, with full voice acting. It released on Nexus Mods on January 15, 2021, with a planned release on Steam being delayed one week. Shortly after launching, the website for Nexus crashed.[78][79][80][81][82]

The mod was briefly pulled after one of its developers was found to have created "animated paedophilic content"[83] and was later re-released with changes to address the criticism, (mainly removing all content by the former developer; most of which were icons for in-game perks and items).[84] Other criticisms and controversies surrounding the mod included perceived poor writing, scenes implying zoophilia, the ability to enslave an 18-year old woman, a lack of coherence with the established Fallout universe, and themes that some critics asserted were depictions of the developers' "barely disguised fetishes".[85][86][87][88]

In May 2021, the Frontier team addressed these criticisms and announced their intention to rework The Frontier "from the ground up", including entirely rewriting the game's NCR questline. With this announcement, they also began recruiting new writers, artists and developers for the project. Project lead Tgspy stated in a blogpost "we hope that this new story will do better justice to the characters, and to the Frontier as a whole".[88]

Reception[edit]

Fallout: New Vegas received "generally favorable" reviews from critics according to review aggregator Metacritic. Critics praised the gameplay improvements and expanded content over Fallout 3, while criticizing familiarity and technical issues. As of November 8, 2010, the game had shipped 5 million copies worldwide,[107] achieving revenue of $300 million.[108] Electronic Entertainment Design and Research, a market research firm, estimates that the game had sold 11.6 million copies worldwide by 2015.[109]

IGN's Keza MacDonald praised the game's script, but criticized the character models and facial animation as "wooden and unbelievable".[90][91]Eurogamer commented that "Obsidian has created a totally compelling world and its frustrations pale into insignificance compared to the immersive, obsessive experience on offer. Just like the scorched scenery that provides its epic backdrop, New Vegas is huge and sprawling, sometimes gaudy, even downright ugly at times – but always effortlessly, shamelessly entertaining."[92] According to GameSpot's Kevin VanOrd, the game's "familiar rhythm will delight fans of the series, and the huge world, expansive quests, and hidden pleasures will have [the players] itching to see what other joys you might uncover. However, as time wears on, the constant glitches invade almost every element of the game and eventually grow wearisome."[94]

Giant Bomb'sJeff Gerstmann reviewed Fallout: New Vegas for the Xbox 360 positively, despite its many crashes, bugs, and glitches. Gerstmann wrote: "When I reflect on the experience, I'll probably think about the times the game locked up on me or broke in a dozen other crazy ways first, before thinking about the great world and the objectives that fill it. If you were able to look past the issues that plagued Fallout 3 and Oblivion before it, New Vegas will eventually show you a real good time."[110]1UP.com's Mike Nelson wrote "On one hand, it feels like I can recommend this to any fan of the Fallout series. I single these fans out because they're willing to forgive silly bugs like meeting characters who walk into walls or occasionally float in mid-air. These fans realize that the game as a whole is greater than the sum of minor graphical anomalies. On the other hand, I simply can't ignore or forgive the game for crashing on me when I walk around the Mojave Wasteland; or for quests that simply can't be completed because of a game glitch; or for making my companions disappear when I need them the most during a battle. These are some of the most frustrating bugs I have ever encountered with any game, especially when attached to a series that I deeply enjoy."[89]

Reappraisal[edit]

Despite its technical problems at launch, in the years since its release Fallout: New Vegas has been critically acclaimed, with praise given to its story, role-playing elements and improvements on its predecessor.[111][112] In 2020, Eurogamer's Wesley Yin-Poole wrote "While it suffered a raft of technical problems – as most of the games built on Bethesda's RPG engine did at the time – its reputation has only grown more positive over the last decade, and it is now considered one of, if not the best Fallout game."[113] Emma Kent wrote in 2019 that "it felt like even the smallest story was carefully crafted to maintain interest and deliver a rewarding kicker" and that "on the macro scale, New Vegas took a more serious tone by weaving a complex power struggle that mirrors many current real-world conflicts."[114] At the end of 2019, Den of Geek ranked Fallout: New Vegas as the twelfth-best game of the decade, with writer Matthew Byrd describing the game as "the glorious comeback of [...] more complex RPG elements. Developer Obsidian fought against a buggy engine and a tight production schedule to turn in an RPG adventure that is all about navigating the possibilities and burdens of player agency in a world where it often feels like you can't properly predict the consequences of your decisions. It's a true role-playing game that takes place in a world you wouldn't want to live in but can't help but be engrossed by."[115]

References[edit]

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Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallout:_New_Vegas
Fallout : Nevada - Vault 8

Reno, Nevada

"Reno" redirects here. For other uses, see Reno (disambiguation).

City in Nevada, United States

City in Nevada, United States

Reno, Nevada

Reno skyline.JPG
Flag of Reno, Nevada

Flag

Official logo of Reno, Nevada
Nickname(s): 

"The Biggest Little City in the World"

Location within Washoe County

Location within Washoe County

Reno is located in Nevada
Reno

Reno

Location within the state of Nevada

Show map of Nevada
Reno is located in the United States
Reno

Reno

Location within the United States

Show map of the United States
Coordinates: 39°31′38″N119°49′19″W / 39.52722°N 119.82194°W / 39.52722; -119.82194Coordinates: 39°31′38″N119°49′19″W / 39.52722°N 119.82194°W / 39.52722; -119.82194
CountryUnited States
StateNevada
CountyWashoe
FoundedMay 9, 1868; 153 years ago (1868-05-09)
IncorporatedMarch 16, 1903; 118 years ago (1903-03-16)
Named forJesse L. Reno
 • TypeCouncil–manager
 • MayorHillary Schieve (I)
 • City111.58 sq mi (288.98 km2)
 • Land108.74 sq mi (281.65 km2)
 • Water2.83 sq mi (7.34 km2)
Elevation4,505 ft (1,373 m)
 • City225,221
 • Estimate 

(2019)[2]

255,601
 • Rank85th, U.S.
 • Density2,350.48/sq mi (907.52/km2)
 • Metro425,417
Demonym(s)Renoites
Time zoneUTC−08:00 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−07:00 (PDT)
ZIP Codes

89500-89599

Area code(s)775
FIPS code32-60600
GNIS feature ID0861100
InterstatesI-80 (NV).svgBusiness Loop 80.svgI-580 (NV).svg
U.S. RoutesUS 395.svg
Major State RoutesNevada 341.svgNevada 430.svgNevada 431.svgNevada 647.svgNevada 659.svg
WaterwaysTruckee River
AirportsReno Stead AirportReno–Tahoe International Airport
Public transitRegional Transportation Commission
Websitereno.gov
Reference no.30

Reno (REE-noh) is a city in the northwest section of the U.S. state of Nevada, along the Nevada-California border, about 22 miles (35 km) from Lake Tahoe, known as "The Biggest Little City in the World".[3] Known for its casino and tourism industry, Reno is the county seat and largest city of Washoe County and sits in the High Sierra foothills, in the Truckee River valley, at the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada. The Reno metro area (along with the neighboring city Sparks) occupies a valley colloquially known as the Truckee Meadows, which because of large-scale investments from Greater Seattle and San Francisco Bay Area companies such as Amazon, Tesla, Panasonic, Microsoft, Apple, and Google has become a new major technology center in the United States.[4]

The city is named after Civil War Union Major General Jesse L. Reno, who was killed in action during the American Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain, on Fox's Gap.

Reno is part of the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area, the second-most populous metropolitan area in Nevada after the Las Vegas Valley.[5] Known as Greater Reno, it includes Washoe, Storey, Lyon Counties, the independent city and state capital, Carson City, as well as parts of Placer and Nevada Counties in California.[6]

History[edit]

See also: Timeline of Reno, Nevada and List of Registered Historic Places in Washoe County, Nevada

Archaeological finds place the eastern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Reno area.[7] As early as the mid-1850s, a few pioneers settled in the Truckee Meadows, a relatively fertile valley through which the Truckee River made its way from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake. In addition to subsistence farming, these early residents could pick up business from travelers along the California Trail, which followed the Truckee westward, before branching off towards Donner Lake, where the formidable obstacle of the Sierra Nevada began.

Gold was discovered in the vicinity of Virginia City in 1850, and a modest mining community developed, but the discovery of silver in 1859 at the Comstock Lode led to a mining rush, and thousands of emigrants left their homes, bound for the West, hoping to find a fortune.

To provide the necessary connection between Virginia City and the California Trail, Charles W. Fuller built a log toll bridge across the Truckee River in 1859. A small community that served travelers soon grew near the bridge. After two years, Fuller sold the bridge to Myron C. Lake, who continued to develop the community by adding a grist mill, kiln, and livery stable to the hotel and eating house. He renamed it "Lake's Crossing". Most of what is present-day western Nevada was formed as the Nevada Territory from part of Utah Territory in 1861.

By January 1863, the Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) had begun laying tracks east from Sacramento, California, eventually connecting with the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, Utah, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. Lake deeded land to the CPRR in exchange for its promise to build a depot at Lake's Crossing. In 1864, Washoe County was consolidated with Roop County, and Lake's Crossing became the county's largest town. Lake had earned himself the title "founder of Reno".[8] Once the railroad station was established, the town of Reno officially came into being on May 9, 1868.[9] CPRR construction superintendent Charles Crocker named the community after Major General Jesse Lee Reno, a Union officer killed in the Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain.

In 1871, Reno became the county seat of the newly expanded Washoe County, replacing the county seat in Washoe City. However, political power in Nevada remained with the mining communities, first Virginia City and later Tonopah and Goldfield.[10][11]

The extension of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad to Reno in 1872 provided a boost to the new city's economy. In the following decades, Reno continued to grow and prosper as a business and agricultural center and became the principal settlement on the transcontinental railroad between Sacramento and Salt Lake City.[12] As the mining boom waned early in the 20th century, Nevada's centers of political and business activity shifted to the nonmining communities, especially Reno and Las Vegas. Nevada is still the third-largest gold producer in the world, after South Africa and Australia; the state yielded 6.9% of the world's supply in 2005 world gold production.[13]

The Reno Arch was erected on Virginia Street in 1926 to promote the upcoming Transcontinental Highways Exposition of 1927. The arch included the words "Nevada's Transcontinental Highways Exposition" and the dates of the exposition. After the exposition, the Reno City Council decided to keep the arch as a permanent downtown gateway, and Mayor E.E. Roberts asked the citizens of Reno to suggest a slogan for the arch. No acceptable slogan was received until a $100 prize was offered, and G.A. Burns of Sacramento was declared the winner on March 14, 1929, with "Reno, the Biggest Little City in the World".[14]

Reno took a leap forward when the state of Nevada legalized open gambling on March 19, 1931, along with the passage of even more liberal divorce laws than places such as Hot Springs, Arkansas, offered. The statewide push for legal Nevada gaming was led by Reno entrepreneur Bill Graham, who owned the Bank Club Casino in Reno, which was on Center Street. No other state offered legalized casino gaming like Nevada had in the 1930s, and casinos such as the Bank Club and Palace were popular.[citation needed] A few states had legal parimutuelhorse racing, but no other state had legal casino gambling. The new divorce laws, passed in 1927, allowed people to divorce each other after six weeks of residency, instead of six months. People wishing to divorce stayed in hotels, houses, and/or dude ranches.[15] Many local businesses in Reno started catering to these visitors, such as R. Herz & Bro, a jewelry store that offered ring resetting services to the recently divorced to El Cortez Hotel, which was built specifically to cater to the high number of wedded couples seeking divorces in Nevada.[16][17] Most people left Nevada when their divorces were finalized.[15]

Within a few years, the Bank Club, owned by George Wingfield, Bill Graham, and Jim McKay, was the state's largest employer and the largest casino in the world. Wingfield owned most of the buildings in town that housed gaming and took a percentage of the profits, along with his rent.[18]

Ernie Pyle once wrote in one of his columns, "All the people you saw on the streets in Reno were obviously there to get divorces." In Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, published in 1943, the New York-based female protagonist tells a friend, "I am going to Reno," which is taken as a different way of saying "I am going to divorce my husband." Among others, Belgian-French writer Georges Simenon, at the time living in the U.S., came to Reno in 1950 to divorce his first wife.[19]

The divorce business eventually died after about 1970, as the other states fell in line by passing their own laws easing the requirements for divorce,[15] but gambling continued as a major Reno industry. While gaming pioneers such as "Pappy" and Harold Smith of Harold's Club and Bill Harrah of the soon-to-dominate Harrah's Casino set up shop in the 1930s, the war years of the 1940s cemented Reno as the place to play for two decades.[20] Beginning in the 1950s, the need for economic diversification beyond gaming fueled a movement for more lenient business taxation.[19]

At 1:03 pm, on February 5, 1957, two explosions, caused by natural gas leaking into the maze of pipes and ditches under the city, and an ensuing fire, destroyed five buildings in the vicinity of Sierra and First Streets along the Truckee River. The disaster killed two people and injured 49. The first explosion hit under the block of shops on the west side of Sierra Street (now the site of the Century Riverside), the second, across Sierra Street, now the site of the Palladio.[citation needed][21]

The presence of a main east–west rail line, the emerging interstate highway system, favorable state tax climate, and relatively inexpensive land created good conditions for warehousing and distribution of goods.[citation needed]

In the 1980s, Indian gaming rules were relaxed, and starting in 2000, Californian Native casinos began to cut into Reno casino revenues.[22] Major new construction projects have been completed in the Reno and Sparks areas. A few new luxury communities were built in Truckee, California, about 28 miles (45 km) west of Reno on Interstate 80. Reno also is an outdoor recreation destination, due to its proximity to the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe, and numerous ski resorts in the region.[23]

In 2018, the city officially changed its flag after a local contest was held.[24]

The flag that was used by Reno from 1959 up to the flag change

Geography[edit]

[edit]

Wetlands are an important part of the Reno/Tahoe area. They act as a natural filter for the solids that come out of the water treatment plant. Plant roots absorb nutrients from the water and naturally filter it. Wetlands are home to over 75% of the species in the Great Basin. However, the area's wetlands are at risk of being destroyed due to development around the city. While developers build on top of the wetlands they fill them with soil, destroying the habitat they create for the plants and animals. Washoe County has devised a plan that will help protect these ecosystems: mitigation. In the future, when developers try to build over a wetland, they will be responsible for creating another wetland near Washoe Lake.

The Truckee River is Reno's primary source of drinking water. It supplies Reno with 80 million U.S. gallons (300 Ml) of water a day during the summer, and 40 million U.S. gallons (150 Ml) of water per day in the winter. Before the water goes to the homes around the Reno area, it must go to one of two water treatment plants, Chalk Bluff or Glendale Water Treatment Plant. To help save water, golf courses in Reno have been using treated effluent water rather than treated water from one of Reno's water plants.

The Reno-Sparks wastewater treatment plant discharges tertiary-treated effluent to the Truckee River. In the 1990s, this capacity was increased from 20 to 30 million U.S. gallons (70 to 110 million liters) per day. While treated, the effluent contains suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus, aggravating water-quality concerns of the river and its receiving waters of Pyramid Lake. Local agencies working with the Environmental Protection Agency have developed several watershed management strategies to accommodate this expanded discharge. To accomplish this successful outcome, the DSSAM model was developed and calibrated for the Truckee River to analyze the most cost-effective available management strategy set.[25] The resulting management strategies included measures such as land use controls in the Lake Tahoe basin, urban runoff controls in Reno and Sparks, and best management practices for wastewater discharge.

Reno Nevada and the Truckee Meadowssouth west of the Reno Tahoe International Airport has a large herd of mustanghorses. These horses nurse and range around the runoff of Steamboat Creek. The mustang is a notable iconic image of the Nevada range land, which includes Reno.

The Reno area is often subject to wildfires that cause property damage and sometimes loss of life. In August 1960, the Donner Ridge fire resulted in a loss of electricity to the city for four days.[26] In November 2011, arcing from powerlines caused a fire in Caughlin in southwest Reno that destroyed 26 homes and killed one man. Just two months later, a fire in Washoe Drive sparked by fireplace ashes destroyed 29 homes and killed one woman. Around 10,000 residents were evacuated, and a state of emergency was declared. The fires came at the end of Reno's longest recorded dry spell.[27]

Geology[edit]

See also: 2008 Reno earthquakes

Dog Valley, west of Reno, an area of active faulting

Reno is just east of the Sierra Nevada, on the western edge of the Great Basin at an elevation of about 4,400 feet (1,300 m) above sea level. Numerous faults exist throughout the region. Most of these are normal (vertical motion) faults associated with the uplift of the various mountain ranges, including the Sierra Nevada.

In February 2008, an earthquake swarm began to occur, lasting for several months, with the largest quake registering at 4.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, although some geologic estimates put it at 5.0. The earthquakes were centered on the Somersett community in western Reno near Mogul and Verdi. Many homes in these areas were damaged.[28]

Climate[edit]

Reno sits in the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. Annual rainfall averages 7.35 inches (187 mm). Reno features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk) due to its low evapotranspiration stemming from its moderate annual average temperature and the concentration of precipitation in the cooler, less-sunny months. The city experiences cool to cold winters, and hot summers. Annual precipitation has ranged from 1.55 inches (39.4 mm) in 1947 to 13.73 inches (348.7 mm) in 2017. The most precipitation in one month was 6.76 inches (171.7 mm) in January 1916 and the most precipitation in 24 hours was 2.71 inches (68.8 mm) on January 28, 1903. At Reno–Tahoe International Airport, where records go back to 1937, the most precipitation in one month was 5.57 inches (141.5 mm) in January 2017 and the most precipitation in 24 hours was 2.29 inches (58.2 mm) on January 21, 1943.[29] Winter snowfall is usually light to moderate, but can be heavy some days, averaging 20.9 inches (53 cm) annually. Snowfall varies with the lowest amounts (roughly 19–23 inches annually) at the lowest part of the valley at and east of the airport at 4,404 feet (1,342 m), while the foothills of the Carson Range to the west ranging from 4,700 to 5,600 feet (1,400 to 1,700 m) in elevation just a few miles west of downtown can receive two to three times as much annual snowfall. The mountains of the Virginia Range to the east can receive more summer thunderstorms and precipitation, and around twice as much annual snowfall above 5,500 feet (1,700 m). However, snowfall increases in the Virginia Range are less dramatic as elevation climbs than in the Carson Range to the west, because the Virginia Range is well within the rain shadow of the Sierra Nevada and Carson Range. The most snowfall in Reno in one winter was 72.3 inches (184 cm) in 1915-1916, with an astonishing 65.7 inches (167 cm) in January, the most in a calendar month, as well as 22.5 inches (57 cm) on January 17, the most in a calendar day; the most snowfall in a calendar year was 82.3 inches (209 cm) in 1916. At Reno–Tahoe International Airport, the most snowfall in one winter was 59.3 inches (151 cm) in 1951-1952, the most in a calendar year was 63.8 inches (162 cm) in 1971, the most in a month was 29.0 inches (74 cm) in March 1952, and the most in a day was 18.0 inches (46 cm) on February 16, 1990.[29]

Most rainfall occurs in winter and spring. The city has 300 days of sunshine per year. Summer thunderstorms can occur between April and October. The eastern side of town and the mountains east of Reno tend to be prone to thunderstorms more often, and these storms may be severe because an afternoon downslope west wind, called a "Washoe Zephyr", can develop in the Sierra Nevada, causing air to be pulled down in the Sierra Nevada and Reno, destroying or preventing thunderstorms, but the same wind can push air upward against the Virginia Range and other mountain ranges east of Reno, creating powerful thunderstorms.[30][31]

The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 36.2 °F (2.3 °C) in December to 77.2 °F (25.1 °C) in July, with the diurnal temperature variation occasionally reaching 40 °F (22 °C) in summer, still lower than much of the high desert to the east. There are 6.0 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs, 65 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, 1.6 days with 70 °F (21 °C)+ lows, and 1.9 days with sub-10 °F (−12 °C) lows annually; the temperature reaches or dips below the freezing point on 122 days, and does not rise above freezing on only 4.1 of those days.[29] The all-time record high temperature is 108 °F (42 °C), which occurred on July 10 and 11, 2002, and again on July 5, 2007. The all-time record low temperature is −17 °F (−27 °C), which occurred on January 21, 1916; the lowest temperature recorded at the airport is −16 °F (−27 °C), which occurred on four occasions, most recently on February 7, 1989.[29] In addition, the region is windy throughout the year; observers such as Mark Twain have commented about the "Washoe Zephyr", northwestern Nevada's distinctive wind.

Climate data for Reno (RNO), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1893–present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 71
(22)
75
(24)
83
(28)
90
(32)
98
(37)
104
(40)
108
(42)
105
(41)
102
(39)
93
(34)
77
(25)
71
(22)
108
(42)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 61.2
(16.2)
65.3
(18.5)
73.9
(23.3)
80.9
(27.2)
89.4
(31.9)
97.0
(36.1)
102.1
(38.9)
100.0
(37.8)
94.5
(34.7)
85.0
(29.4)
71.5
(21.9)
61.7
(16.5)
102.6
(39.2)
Average high °F (°C) 47.7
(8.7)
52.1
(11.2)
59.2
(15.1)
64.7
(18.2)
74.1
(23.4)
84.6
(29.2)
93.9
(34.4)
92.1
(33.4)
83.8
(28.8)
70.4
(21.3)
56.7
(13.7)
46.7
(8.2)
68.8
(20.4)
Daily mean °F (°C) 36.9
(2.7)
40.6
(4.8)
46.6
(8.1)
51.6
(10.9)
60.3
(15.7)
69.2
(20.7)
77.2
(25.1)
75.1
(23.9)
67.0
(19.4)
55.1
(12.8)
43.8
(6.6)
36.2
(2.3)
55.0
(12.8)
Average low °F (°C) 26.1
(−3.3)
29.0
(−1.7)
34.0
(1.1)
38.5
(3.6)
46.6
(8.1)
53.8
(12.1)
60.4
(15.8)
58.1
(14.5)
50.3
(10.2)
39.7
(4.3)
31.0
(−0.6)
25.7
(−3.5)
41.1
(5.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 12.2
(−11.0)
16.1
(−8.8)
21.3
(−5.9)
26.2
(−3.2)
34.0
(1.1)
41.0
(5.0)
50.7
(10.4)
48.5
(9.2)
39.0
(3.9)
27.4
(−2.6)
17.4
(−8.1)
11.3
(−11.5)
6.6
(−14.1)
Record low °F (°C) −17
(−27)
−16
(−27)
−3
(−19)
13
(−11)
16
(−9)
25
(−4)
33
(1)
24
(−4)
20
(−7)
8
(−13)
1
(−17)
−16
(−27)
−17
(−27)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.25
(32)
1.03
(26)
0.80
(20)
0.44
(11)
0.55
(14)
0.41
(10)
0.20
(5.1)
0.24
(6.1)
0.21
(5.3)
0.50
(13)
0.62
(16)
1.10
(28)
7.35
(187)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.2
(13)
5.2
(13)
2.9
(7.4)
0.4
(1.0)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
1.8
(4.6)
5.2
(13)
20.9
(53)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)6.9 7.0 5.5 4.5 4.4 3.1 1.7 1.6 2.0 2.9 4.3 6.6 50.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)3.4 3.3 2.0 0.7 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.2 3.0 13.9
Average relative humidity (%) 68.0 60.2 52.7 45.9 43.2 39.9 36.2 39.3 44.0 50.7 61.2 67.6 50.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours195.6 204.2 291.0 332.1 375.8 393.8 424.0 390.8 343.9 295.2 212.0 187.5 3,645.9
Percent possible sunshine65 68 78 83 84 88 93 92 92 85 70 64 82
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[32][33][34]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18601,035
18701,0350.0%
18801,36231.6%
18903,563161.6%
19004,50026.3%
191010,867141.5%
192012,01610.6%
193018,52954.2%
194021,31715.0%
195032,49752.4%
196051,47058.4%
197072,86341.6%
1980100,75638.3%
1990133,85032.8%
2000197,17747.3%
2010236,72820.1%
2019 (est.)257,182[2]8.6%
source:[35]

As of the census of 2010, there were 225,221 people, 90,924 households, and 51,112 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,186.6 per square mile (844.2/km2). There were 102,582 housing units at an average density of 995.9 per square mile (384.5/km2). The city's racial makeup was 74.2% White, 2.9% African American, 1.3% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 10.5% some other race, and 4.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 24.3% of the population.[36]Non-Hispanic Whites were 62.5% of the population in 2010,[36] down from 88.5% in 1980.[37]

Map of racial distribution in Reno, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanicor other(yellow).

At the 2010 census, there were 90,924 households, of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% were headed by married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.8% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.7% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43, and the average family size was 3.10.[36]

In the city, the 2010 population was spread out, with 22.8% under the age of 18, 12.5% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.7 males.[36]

In 2011 the city's estimated median household income was $44,846, and the median family income was $53,896. Males had a median income of $42,120 versus $31,362 for females. The city's per capita income was $25,041. About 9.6% of families and 14.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over.[38][39] The population was 180,480 at the 2000 census; in 2010, its population had risen to 225,221, making it the third-largest city in the state after Las Vegas and Henderson, and the largest outside Clark County. Reno lies 26 miles (42 km) north of the Nevada state capital, Carson City, and 22 miles (35 km) northeast of Lake Tahoe in a shrub-steppe environment. Reno shares its eastern border with the city of Sparks and is the larger of the principal cities of the Reno–Sparks, Nevada Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), a metropolitan area that covers Storey and Washoe counties.[40] The MSA had a combined population of 425,417 at the 2010 census.[41] The MSA is combined with the Fernley Micropolitan Statistical Area and the Carson City MSA to form the Reno-Carson City-FernleyCombined Statistical Area, which had a population of 477,397 at the 2010 census.[6]

Economy[edit]

Silver Legacy Hotel with Downtown Reno in the background
A panorama of downtown Reno in 2012

Before 1960s, Reno was the gambling capital of the United States, but Las Vegas' rapid growth, American Airlines' 2000 buyout of Reno Air, and the growth of Native American gaming in California have reduced its business. Older casinos were torn down (Mapes Hotel, Fitzgerald's Nevada Club, Primadonna, Horseshoe Club, Harold's Club, Palace Club), or smaller casinos like the Comstock, Sundowner, Golden Phoenix, Kings Inn, Money Tree, Virginian, and Riverboat were either closed or were converted into residential units.

Because of its location, Reno has traditionally drawn the majority of its California tourists and gamblers from the San Francisco Bay Area and Sacramento, while Las Vegas has historically served more tourists from Southern California and the Phoenix area.

Several local large hotel casinos have shown significant growth and have moved gaming further away from the downtown core. These larger hotel casinos are the Atlantis, the Peppermill and the Grand Sierra Resort. The Peppermill was chosen as the most outstanding Reno gaming/hotel property by Casino Player and Nevada magazines. In 2005, the Peppermill Reno began a $300 million Tuscan-themed expansion.

Reno holds several events throughout the year to draw tourists to the area. They include Hot August Nights[42] (a classic car convention), Street Vibrations (a motorcycle fan gathering and rally), The Great Reno Balloon Race, a Cinco de Mayo celebration, bowling tournaments (held in the National Bowling Stadium), and the Reno Air Races.

Several large commercial developments were constructed during the mid-2000s boom, such as The Summit in 2007 and Legends at Sparks Marina in 2008.

Reno is the location of the corporate headquarters for several companies, including Braeburn Capital, Hamilton, Server Technology, EE Technologies, and Port of Subs. International Game Technology, Bally Technologies and GameTech have a development and manufacturing presence. Truckee Meadows, because of large-scale investments from Greater Seattle and San Francisco Bay Area companies such as Amazon, Tesla, Panasonic, Microsoft, Apple, and Google has become a new major technology center in the United States.[4]

Since the turn of the 21st century, greater Reno saw an influx of technology companies entering the area, following major initiatives and investments by investors from Seattle & the Bay Area. The first one in 1999 was Amazon.com in Fernley. After the Great Recession, the state placed an increased focus on economic development. Thousands of new jobs were created.[43][44][45][46][47]

Tesla's Gigafactory is at the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center in the largest building in the world. The Gigafactory purportedly covers 5.8 million square feet.[48][44][45][46][47]

The arrival of several data centers at the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center is further diversifying a region that was best known for distribution and logistics outside gaming and tourism. Switch's new SuperNAP campus at the Tahoe Reno Industrial Center is shaping up to be the largest data center in the world once completed. Apple is expanding its data center at the adjacent Reno Technology Park and recently built a warehouse on land in downtown Reno. Rackspace is also building a $422 million data center next to Apple.

The greater Reno area also hosts distribution facilities for Amazon, Walmart, PetSmart and Zulily.[49]

Top employers[edit]

According to Reno's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[50] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer Employees
1 Washoe County School District8,750
2 University of Nevada, Reno4,750
3 Washoe County2,750
4 Renown Regional Medical Center2,750
5 Peppermill Reno2,250
6 International Game Technology1,750
7 Atlantis Casino Resort1,750
8 Circus & Eldorado Joint Venture1,750
9 HG Staffing LLC 1,750
10 Saint Mary's Regional Medical Center1,250

Healthcare[edit]

Night arrival of medical transport helicopter at Renown Regional Medical Center

Reno has several healthcare facilities. Many are affiliated with the University of Nevada Reno School of Medicine.

  • Northern Nevada Medical Center
  • Renown Regional Medical Center
  • Saint Mary's Regional Medical Center
  • University of Nevada Reno School of Medicine
  • Veteran's Administration Sierra Nevada Healthcare System Reno, Nevada

Culture[edit]

Reno has several museums. The Nevada Museum of Art is the only American Alliance of Museums (AAM) accredited art museum in Nevada.[51] The National Automobile Museum contains 200 cars that were from the collection of William F. Harrah, including Elvis Presley's 1973 Cadillac Eldorado.[52]

Reno also hosts a number of music venues, such as the Pioneer Center for the Performing Arts, the Reno Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Reno Pops Orchestra. The Reno Youth Symphony Orchestra (YSO), affiliated with the Reno Philharmonic, gives talented youth the opportunity to play advanced music and perform nationwide.[53] In 2016 they had the honor of performing at Carnegie Hall. A.V.A. Ballet Theatre is the resident ballet company of the Pioneer Center for the Performing Arts. All of their classical performances are with the Reno Philharmonic Orchestra.

Every July, Reno celebrates Artown, a visual and performing arts festival that lasts the entire month of July throughout the city. Along with performances, Artown partners with other institutions throughout the Reno Tahoe area to hold workshops, camps, and classes for all ages. All events are free of charge or low cost.[54][self-published source]

Reno has a public library, a branch of the Washoe County Library System. The Downtown branch of the Washoe County Library was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013.[55]

Sports[edit]

See also: Nevada § Sports

Reno is home to the Reno Aces, the minor league baseballTriple-A affiliate of the Arizona Diamondbacks, playing in Greater Nevada Field, a downtown ballpark opened in 2009. Reno has hosted multiple professional baseball teams in the past, most under the Reno Silver Sox name. The Reno Astros, a former professional, unaffiliated baseball team, played at Moana Stadium until 2009.

In basketball, the Reno Bighorns of the NBA G League played at the Reno Events Center from 2008 to 2018.[56] They were primarily an affiliate of the Sacramento Kings throughout its existence. The Sacramento Kings bought the team in 2016 and moved the franchise to become the Stockton Kings in 2018.

Reno is host to both amateur and professional combat sporting events such as mixed martial arts and boxing. The "Fight of the Century" between Jack Johnson and James J. Jeffries was held in Reno in 1910.[57] Boxer Ray Mancini fought four of his last five fights in Reno against Bobby Chacon, Livingstone Bramble, Héctor Camacho, and Greg Haugen.[58]

Reno expected to be the future home of an ECHL ice hockey team, named the Reno Raiders, but construction on a suitable arena never began. The franchise was dormant since 1998, when it was named the Reno Rage, and earlier the Reno Renegades, and played in the now-defunct West Coast Hockey League (WCHL). In 2016, Reno was removed from the ECHL's Future Markets page.

The Reno–Tahoe Open is northern Nevada's only PGA Tour event, held at Montrêux Golf & Country Club in Reno. As part of the FedEx Cup, the tournament follows 132 PGA Tour professionals competing for a share of the event's $3 million purse. The Reno-Tahoe Open Foundation has donated more than $1.8 million to local charities.

Reno has a college sports scene, with the Nevada Wolf Pack appearing in football bowl games and an Associated Press and Coaches Poll Top Ten ranking in basketball in 2018.

Reno Whitewater Festival at the whitewater park in Reno

In 2004, the city completed a $1.5 million whitewater park on the Truckee River in downtown Reno which hosts whitewater events throughout the year. The course runs Class 2 and 3 rapids with year-round public access. The 1,400-foot (430 m) north channel features more aggressive rapids, drop pools and "holes" for rodeo kayak-type maneuvers. The milder 1,200 ft (370 m) south channel is set up as a kayak slalom course and a beginner area.

Reno is home to two roller derby teams, the Battle Born Derby Demons and the Reno Roller Girls.[59] The Battle Born Derby Demons compete on flat tracks locally and nationally. They are the only derby team locally to compete in a national Derby league.

Reno is the home of the National Bowling Stadium, which hosts the United States Bowling Congress (USBC) Open Championships every three years.

List of teams[edit]

Minor professional teams[edit]

Amateur teams[edit]

Team Sport League Venue (capacity) Established Titles
Reno Ice Raiders Ice hockey MWHLReno Ice 2015 0
Nevada Coyotes FC Soccer UPSLRio Vista Sports Complex (N/A) 2016 0

College teams[edit]

Recreation[edit]

Virginia Lake is a popular place for people to walk their dog in Reno.

Reno is home to a variety of recreation activities including both seasonal and year-round. In the summer, Reno locals can be found near three major bodies of water: Lake Tahoe, the Truckee River, and Pyramid Lake. The Truckee River originates at Lake Tahoe and flows west to east through the center of downtown Reno before terminating at Pyramid Lake to the north. The river is a major part of Artown, held in the summer at Wingfield Park. Washoe Lake is a popular kite and windsurfing location because of its high wind speeds during the summer.

Skiing and snowboarding are among the most popular winter sports and draw many tourists. There are 18 ski resorts[60] (8 major resorts) as close as 11 miles (18 km) and as far as 98 miles (158 km) from the Reno–Tahoe International Airport, including Northstar California, Sierra-at-Tahoe, Alpine Meadows, Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Diamond Peak, Heavenly Mountain, and Mount Rose. Other popular Reno winter activities include snowshoeing, ice skating, and snowmobiling. There are many bike paths to ride in the summer time. Lake Tahoe hosts international bike competitions each summer.

Air races[edit]

T6sline up for the 2014 Reno Air Races

The Reno Air Races, also known as the National Championship Air Races, are held each September at the Reno Stead Airport.[61][62]

Government[edit]

Reno has a democratic municipal government. The city council is the core of the government, with seven members. Five of these council people represent districts of Reno, and are vetted in the primary by the citizens of each district. In general, the top two vote earners in each ward make the ballot for the citywide election. The other two council members are the at-large member, who represents the entire city, and the mayor, who is elected by the people of the city. The council has several duties, including setting priorities for the city, promoting communication with the public, planning development, and redevelopment.

There is an elected city attorney who is responsible for civil and criminal cases. The City Attorney represents the city government in court, and prosecutes misdemeanors.

The city's charter calls for a council-manager form of government, meaning the council appoints only two positions, the city manager, who implements and enforces the policies and programs the council approves, and the city clerk. The city manager is in charge of the budget and workforce for all city programs. The city clerk, who records the proceedings of the council, makes appointments for the council, and makes sure efficient copying and printing services are available.

In 2010, there was a ballot question asking whether the Reno city government and the Washoe County government should explore the idea of becoming one combined governmental body.[63] Fifty-four percent of voters approved of the ballot measure to make an inquiry into consolidating the governments.[64]

Fire department[edit]

The city of Reno is protected by the Reno Fire Department (RFD) manning 14 fire stations.[65][66]

The Reno Fire Department (RFD) provides all-risk emergency service to the City of Reno residents. All-risk emergency service is the national model of municipal fire departments, providing the services needed in the most efficient way possible.[67]

The department provides paramedic-level service to the citizens and visitors of Reno. This is the highest level of emergency medical care available in the field.

In addition to responding to fires, whether they occur in structures, vegetation/brush or vehicles, the fire department also provides rescue capabilities for almost any type of emergency situation.

This includes quick and efficient emergency medical care for the citizens; a hazardous materials team capable of identifying unknown materials and controlling a release disaster; and preparedness and management of large-scale incidents.

Maintaining this level of service requires nearly constant training of personnel. This training maintains both the skills needed to operate safely in emergency environments and the physical fitness necessary to reduce the likelihood and severity of injuries.

The minimum annual-training requirement to maintain firefighting and medical skills is 240 hours per year. Special teams and company-level drills add significantly to that number of hours.[68]

Education[edit]

Universities and colleges[edit]

  • The University of Nevada, Reno is the oldest university in Nevada and Nevada System of Higher Education. In 1886, the state university, previously only a college preparatory school, moved from Elko in remote northeastern Nevada to north of downtown Reno, where it became a full-fledged state college.[69] The university grew slowly over the decades, but it now has an enrollment of 21,353,[70] with most students from within Nevada. Its specialties include mining engineering, agriculture, journalism, business, and one of only two Basque Studies programs in the nation. It houses the National Judicial College. The university was named one of the top 200 colleges in the nation in the most recent U.S. News & World Report National Universities category index.[71]
  • Truckee Meadows Community College (TMCC) is a regionally accredited, two-year institution which is part of the Nevada System of Higher Education. The college has approximately 13,000 students attending classes at a primary campus and four satellite centers. It offers a wide range of academic and university transfer programs, occupational training, career enhancement workshops, and other classes. TMCC offers associate of arts, associate of science, associate of applied science or associate of general studies degrees, one-year certificates, or certificates of completion in more than 50 career fields, including architecture, auto/diesel mechanics, criminal justice, dental hygiene, graphic design, musical theatre, nursing, and welding.
  • Career College of Northern Nevada (CCNN) is a nationally accredited trade school that trains students in technical fields that support fast growing industries. The college is locally owned and operated. Employer advisory boards direct the college to provide skill training that is relevant to industry needs.
  • University of Phoenix – Northern Nevada Campus is in south Reno. The university faculty is a collection business and academic professionals from the local Reno area.
  • The Nevada School of Law at Old College in Reno was the first law school established in the state of Nevada. Its doors were open from 1981 to 1988.

Public schools[edit]

Public education is provided by the Washoe County School District.

  • Reno has twelve public high schools: Damonte Ranch, Galena, Hug, North Valleys High School, McQueen, Academy of Arts, Careers, and Technology (AACT), Reno, Truckee Meadows Community College High School,[72] Innovations, and Wooster.
  • There are three public high schools in neighboring Sparks, attended by many students who live in Reno: Reed, Spanish Springs, and Sparks High School.
  • Reno-Sparks has 15 middle schools: Billinghurst, Clayton, Cold Springs, Depoali, Dilworth, Herz, Mendive, O'Brien, Pine, Shaw, Sky Ranch, Sparks, Swope, Traner, and Vaughn.
  • Reno-Sparks has 65 elementary schools: Allen, Anderson, Beasley, Jesse Beck, Bennett, Booth, Brown, Cannan, Caughlin Ranch, Corbett, Desert Heights, Diedrichsen, Dodson, Donner Springs, Double Diamond, Drake, Duncan, Katherine Dunn, Elmcrest, Gomes, Grace Warner, Greenbrae, Hidden Valley, Huffaker, Hunsberger, Hunter Lake, Jesse Beck, John C Bohach, Johnson, Juniper, Lemmon Valley, Elizabeth Lenz, Lincoln Park, Echo Loder, Mathews, Maxwell, Melton, Mitchell, Moss, Mount Rose, Natchez, Palmer, Peavine, Picollo Special Education School, Pleasant Valley, Risley, Roy Gomm, Sepulveda, Sierra Vista, Silver Lake, Alice Smith, Kate Smith, Smithridge, Spanish Springs, Stead, Sun Valley, Taylor, Towles, Van Gorder, Verdi [pronounced VUR-die], Veterans Memorial, Warner, Westergard, Whitehead, and Sarah Winnemucca. (some schools included on this list are in Sparks)

Public charter schools[edit]

Reno has many charter schools, which include Academy for Career Education, serving grades 10–12, opened 2002;[73] Alpine Academy Charter High School, serving grades 9–12, opened 2009;[74] Bailey Charter Elementary School, serving grades K-6, opened 2001;[75] Coral Academy of Science, serving grades K-12;[76]Davidson Academy, serving grades 6–12, opened 2006;[77] High Desert Montessori School, serving grades PreK-7, opened 2002; I Can Do Anything Charter School, serving grades 9–12, opened 2000; Rainshadow Community Charter High School, serving grades 9–12, opened 2003;[78] Sierra Nevada Academy Charter School, serving grades PreK-8, opened 1999; and TEAM A (Together Everyone Achieves More Academy), serving grades 9–12, opened 2004.[79]

Private schools[edit]

Reno has a few private elementary schools such as Legacy Christian School, Excel Christian School, St. Nicholas Orthodox Academy,[80] Lamplight Christian School,[81] and Nevada Sage Waldorf School[82] as well as private high schools, the largest of which are Bishop Manogue High School[83] and Sage Ridge School.[84]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Reno skyline in June 2006
A 6-lane freeway passing under a series of underpasses
Reno skyline in September 2014

Roads[edit]

Reno was historically served by the Victory Highway and a branch of the Lincoln Highway. After the formation of the U.S. Numbered Highways system, U.S. Route 40 was routed along 4th Street through downtown Reno, before being replaced by Interstate 80. The primary north–south highway through Reno is U.S. Route 395/Interstate 580.

Bus[edit]

The Regional Transportation Commission of Washoe County (RTC) has a bus system that provides intracity buses, intercity buses to Carson City, and an on-demand shuttle service for disabled persons.[85] The system has its main terminal on 4th Street in downtown Reno and secondary terminals in Sparks and at Meadowood Mall in south Reno.

Numerous shuttle and excursion services are offered connecting the Reno–Tahoe International Airport to various destinations:

Greyhound stops at a downtown terminal. Megabus stopped at the Silver Legacy Reno, but has since discontinued service to Reno.[86]

Rail[edit]

Reno was historically a stopover along the First Transcontinental Railroad; the modern Overland Route continues to run through Reno. Reno was additionally the southern terminus of the Nevada–California–Oregon Railway (NCO) and the northern terminus of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad. Using the NCO depot and right of way, the Western Pacific Railroad also provided rail service to Reno. In the early 20th century, Reno also had a modest streetcar system. Downtown Reno has two historic train depots, the inactive Nevada-California-Oregon Railroad Depot and the active Amtrak depot at Reno station, originally built by the Southern Pacific Railroad.[87]

Amtrak provides daily passenger service to Reno via the California Zephyr at Reno station and via multiple Amtrak Thruway Motorcoaches that connect to trains departing from Sacramento.

Air[edit]

The city is served by Reno–Tahoe International Airport, with general aviation traffic handled by Reno Stead Airport. Reno–Tahoe International Airport is the second busiest commercial airport in the state of Nevada after McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas. Reno was the hub and headquarters of the defunct airline Reno Air.

Utilities[edit]

The Truckee Meadows Water Authority provides potable water for the city. The Truckee River is the primary water source, with purification occurring at two plants, Chalk Bluff and Glendale. The Chalk Bluff plant's main intakes are west of Reno and south of Verdi, with the water flowing through a series of flumes and ditches to the plant. Alternative intakes are below the plant along the banks of the Truckee River itself. The Glendale plant is alongside the river, and is fed by a rock and concrete rubble diversion dam a short distance upstream.[88]

Sewage treatment for most of the Truckee Meadows region takes place at the Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility at the eastern edge of the valley. Treated effluent returns to the Truckee River by way of Steamboat Creek.[89]

NV Energy, formerly Sierra Pacific, provides electric power and natural gas. Power comes from multiple sources, including Tracy-Clark Station to the east, and the Steamboat Springsbinary cycle power plants at the southern end of town.[90]

Notable people[edit]

  • Mädchen Amick, actress, Twin Peaks, Sleepwalkers, Dream Lover
  • Chris Ault, Hall of Fame NCAA football coach, retired head coach of University of Nevada, Reno Wolf Pack
  • Luke Babbitt, basketball player for Miami Heat, previously Portland Trail Blazers 2010–2013
  • Ryan Bader, professional MMA artist and heavyweight champion of Bellator MMA
  • Shannon Bahrke, skier, silver medalist 2002 Winter Olympics, bronze medalist 2010 Winter Olympics, and 2003 World Cup champion
  • Brent Boyd, pro football player of Minnesota Vikings
  • T. Brian Callister, physician and health care quality expert
  • Chris Carr, pro football player
  • Bob Cashell, former Mayor of Reno and Lieutenant Governor
  • Walter Van Tilburg Clark, author of The Ox-Bow Incident
  • Doug Clifford, Creedence Clearwater Revival drummer
  • Kimberley Conrad, Playboy Playmate of the Year (1989), Hugh Hefner's second ex-wife
  • Heidi Cortez, Sunset Tan, The Howard Stern Show
  • David Coverdale, singer-songwriter, former frontsinger of Deep Purple and Whitesnake
  • Joe Flanigan, actor
  • Rudy Galindo, figure skater
  • Matt Gallagher, author and Iraq War veteran
  • Bud Gaugh, drummer of the band Sublime
  • Jim Gibbons, former Governor and U.S. Representative
  • Mark Gilmartin, golfer, entrepreneur
  • Curtis Hanson, producer-director of films 8 Mile, L.A. Confidential, The Hand That Rocks the Cradle, more
  • Sean Hamilton (Hollywood Hamilton), nationally syndicated radio personality
  • Jennifer Harman, professional poker player
  • Wilder W. Hartley (1901–70), Los Angeles City Council member, 1939–41, born in Reno
  • Martin Heinrich, U.S. Senator from New Mexico since 2013; was considered for nominee Hillary Clinton's Vice President for the 2016 election
  • Procter Ralph Hug, Jr., federal judge
  • Terri Ivens, actress on All My Children
  • Kevin Jepsen, professional baseball player, attended Bishop Manogue High School
  • Colin Kaepernick, football quarterback, University of Nevada, Reno and San Francisco 49ers
  • Mike Krukow, MLB pitcher and broadcaster, Reno resident
  • Mills Lane, boxing referee, district judge, television personality on Judge Mills Lane
  • Adam Laxalt, former Nevada Attorney General
  • Paul Laxalt, former Governor and U.S. Senator from Nevada
  • Greg Lemond, former professional road racing cyclist, three-time winner of the Tour de France
  • Juliette Leong, child prodigy painter and illustrator
  • Greg London, entertainer
  • Julia Mancuso, skier, Olympic gold medalist 2006
  • Rich Marotta, boxing commentator, Los Angeles radio personality
  • Anne Henrietta Martin, first woman to run for U.S. Senate
  • Pat McCarran, U.S. Senator, namesake of McCarran International Airport
  • April Meservy, singer-songwriter
  • Jessica Nigri, cosplay celebrity, promotional model, YouTuber, voice actress and fan convention interview correspondent
  • Frank Herbert Norcross, judge
  • Roger Norman, off-road racer and owner of Norman Motorsports
  • Carl Ravazza, bandleader and talent agent
  • Chuck Ruff, drummer, Edgar Winter Group
  • Brian Sandoval, former Governor
  • Gene Savoy, Peru explorer, discoverer of Vilcabamba, Gran Pajaten, Gran Vilaya, Gran Saposoa
  • Nate Schierholtz, professional baseball player, born in Reno
  • Hillary Schieve, Mayor of Reno
  • Will Schusterick, professional disc golfer and three-time winner of the United States Disc Golf Championship
  • Jason-Shane Scott, soap opera actor
  • Ken Shamrock, mixed martial artist, UFC Hall of Famer, professional wrestler
  • Simons & Cameron (Gordon Simons and Lane Cameron), singers and songwriters
  • Shannyn Sossamon, actress of A Knight's Tale, 40 Days and 40 Nights and The Rules of Attraction
  • Kevin Stadler, pro golfer, born in Reno
  • Inga Thompson, professional cyclist
  • Kyle Van Noy, professional football player, born in Reno
  • Gabriel Damon, actor
  • Willy Vlautin, novelist, lead vocalist and songwriter for Alt-Country band Richmond Fontaine[91]
  • J. Buzz Von Ornsteiner, forensic psychologist, television personality
  • Michael Weiss, competitive swimmer [92]
  • Dawn Wells, Miss Nevada 1959, actress on TV series Gilligan's Island
  • Joe Wieland, professional baseball player
  • Taylor Wilson, nuclear scientist; previously held record for being youngest person to achieve nuclear fusion
  • David Wise, five-time World Cup medalist and Olympic gold medalist in half pipe skiing
  • Dolora Zajick, dramatic mezzo-soprano

In popular culture[edit]

The young adult author Ellen Hopkins has written a series of novels called Crank set in Reno. Many of the short stories included in Claire Vaye Watkins' collection Battleborn are set in the city.[citation needed]

The novel The City of Trembling leaves by Walter Van Tilburg Clark is set in the city.

Songwriter Richard Fariña composed a song named "Reno Nevada"; it was first released on Richard & Mimi Fariña's debut album Celebrations For A Grey Day in 1965. The song was covered by Fairport Convention in 1968 and by Iain Matthews in 1971. Thomas Dolby composed a song named "Road to Reno" as part of his A Map of the Floating City album, released in 2011.[citation needed] Reno is the 2nd location (of 90) mentioned in the North American version of  Geoff Mack's country song I've Been Everywhere.

Doug Supernaw performed the song Reno which went to number 4 on the Billboard Country chart in 1993.

The lyrics to the R.E.M. song All the Way to Reno (You're Gonna Be a Star) describe someone who believes they can get famous if they go to Reno.

The comedy TV series Reno 911! takes place in Reno.

The videogame Fallout 2 features the fictional city of New Reno, based upon the real-world location.[93] Movies filmed in Reno include:

Music videos filmed in Reno include:

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Reno's sister cities are:[116]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Mean maxima and minima (i.e., the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^Official records for Reno kept January 1893 to 10 November 1905 at "Reno", 11 November 1905 to February 1937 at Reno Weather Bureau Office (CRB), and at Reno–Tahoe International Airport since March 1937. For more information, see Threadex

References[edit]

  1. ^"2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  2. ^ ab"Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  3. ^"City of Reno : Home". Reno.gov. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
  4. ^ abhttps://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-06-22/reno-is-starting-to-look-more-like-silicon-valley.
  5. ^"QuickFacts – Reno city, Nevada". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  6. ^ ab"Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 -United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2017 Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  7. ^
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reno,_Nevada

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