Pagan sabbats 2019

Pagan sabbats 2019 DEFAULT

The Origins and Practices of Mabon

Mabon - September 23, 2019

Mabon is a pagan holiday, and one of the eight Wiccan sabbats celebrated during the year. Mabon celebrates the autumnal equinox. In the northern hemisphere, this September 23rd will be the autumnal equinox. However, the southern hemisphere already celebrated Mabon on March 20, when the Northern hemisphere celebrated Ostara. It also celebrates the mid-harvest festival (also known as the second harvest).

Many civilizations have celebrated a harvest festival around the equinox. In the 1700s, the Bavarians (part of present day Germany) began a festival that starts in the last week of September. They called this festival Oktoberfest. The festival had lots of feasting and celebrating. Oktoberfest is still celebrated in Bavaria today.

Many cultures see the second harvest (after the first harvest Lammas) and equinox as a time for giving thanks. This time of year is when farmers know how well their summer crops did, and how well fed their animals have become. This determines whether you and your family would have enough food for the winter. That is why people used to give thanks around this time, thanks for their crops, and animals, and food. The original American Thanksgiving was celebrated on October 3, which makes more sense with harvest times. By the end of November, there’s not that much left to harvest.

The name Mabon comes from the Welsh God, who was the son of the Earth Mother Goddess. However, there is evidence that the name was adopted in the 1970s, and the holiday was not originally a Celtic celebration.

To celebrate this holiday, pagans might pick apples. Apples are a common symbol of the second harvest. They may use the apples in an apple harvest ritual that thanks the gods for the bountiful harvest. Others might perform a ritual to restore balance and harmony to their lives, as this holiday celebrates a day with equal light and day. Another common ritual is to set up an altar with symbols of the season, such as apples, grapes, and other seasonal harvests. Any sabbat would not be complete without a feast for family and friends.

You can learn more about Mabon with these items:


Celebrating the Seasons of Life


The 8 Pagan Sabbats


The fields are bare, the leaves have fallen from the trees, and the skies are going gray and cold. It is the time of year when the earth has died and gone dormant. Annually on October 31, the sabbat called Samhain presents pagans with the opportunity to once more celebrate the cycle of death and rebirth.

In many pagan and Wiccan traditions, Samhain marks a chance to reconnect with our ancestors and honor those who've died. This is the period when the veil between the earthly world and the spirit realm is thin, allowing pagans to make contact with the dead. 

Yule, the Winter Solstice

For people of nearly any religious background, the winter solstice is a time to gather with loved ones. Pagans and Wiccans celebrate the solstice as the Yule season, which focuses on rebirth and renewal as the sun makes its way back to the earth.

Focus on this time of new beginnings with your magical workings. Welcome light and warmth into your home and embrace the fallow season of the earth.


Observed during the frigid month of February, Imbolc reminds pagans that spring will come soon. During Imbolc, some people focus on the Celtic goddess Brighid, especially as a deity of fire and fertility. Others concentrate on the cycles of the season and agricultural markers.

Imbolc is a time to harness the magical energy related to the feminine aspects of the goddess, of new beginnings, and of fire. It's also a good season to focus on divination and increasing your own magical gifts and abilities. 

Ostara, the Spring Equinox

Ostara is the time of the vernal equinox. Rituals usually observe the coming of spring and the fertility of the land. Pay attention to agricultural changes, such as the ground becoming warmer, and look for the plants to slowly surface from the ground. 


April's showers have greened the earth, and few celebrations represent the land's fertility as Beltane does. Observed May 1, festivities typically begin the evening before on the last night of April.

Beltane is a celebration that has a long (and sometimes scandalous) history. It's a time when the Earth mother opens up to the fertility god, and their union brings about healthy livestock, strong crops, and new life all around. The magic of the season reflects this. 

Litha, the Summer Solstice

Also called Litha, this summer solstice honors the longest day of the year. Take advantage of the extra hours of daylight and spend as much time as you can outdoors. There are many ways to celebrate Litha, but most focus on the power of the sun. It's the time of year when the crops are growing heartily and the earth has warmed up. Pagans can spend afternoons enjoying the outdoors and reconnecting to nature. 


At the height of summer, the gardens and fields are full of flowers and crops, and the harvest is approaching. Take a moment to relax in the heat and reflect on the upcoming abundance of the fall months. At Lammas, sometimes called Lughnasadh, it's time to reap what has been sown throughout the past few months and recognize that the bright summer days will soon come to an end.

Typically the focus is on the early harvest aspect or the celebration of the Celtic god Lugh. It's the season when the first grains are ready to be harvested and threshed, when the apples and grapes are ripe for the plucking, and pagans are grateful for the food we have on our tables. 

Mabon, the Autumn Equinox

During the autumn equinox, the harvest is winding down. The fields are nearly empty because the crops have been plucked and stored for the coming winter. Mabon is the mid-harvest festival, and it is when pagans take a few moments to honor the changing seasons and celebrate the second harvest.

Many pagans and Wiccan spend the equinox giving thanks for what they have, whether it is abundant crops or other blessings. While pagans celebrate the gifts of the earth during this time, they also accept that the soil is dying. They may have food to eat, but the crops are brown and withering up. Warmth has now past, and cold lies ahead during this seasonal shift when there's an equal amount of day and night.

Watch Now: Overview of the Four Seasons

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To see the dates for 2021 Wiccan holidays, click here!

There are eight holidays, or Sabbats, that make up the Wiccan wheel of the year. Some have fixed dates while others don’t—which can make planning your celebrations a pain.

Not to worry, though!

In this article we’re taking a look at the 2019 dates for the eight major Wiccan holidays. You’ll find what you need to know about their timing, as well as how Wiccans generally celebrate these sacred occasions.

Let’s get started!


Every year, Imbolg falls on February 1st. In 2019, that will be on a Friday.

During this festival (which is sometimes referred to as Brigid or Brigid’s day), Wiccans celebrate the beginnings of spring. Because of this holiday’s association with the Irish goddess Brigid, many witches will perform rituals or rites in her honor.

Additionally, some Wiccans use this Sabbat to initiate new members into a coven.


In 2019, Ostara falls on Wednesday, March 20th.

Ostara is a Wiccan holiday, but many other people celebrate the occasion by another name—the spring equinox. This is one of two days in the year when sunlight and nighttime divide the day evenly.

Within Wicca, we associate this day with the Maiden manifestation of the Triple Goddess. Because of this, it’s a time for renewal and blessing magick.


Traditionally, Beltane falls on May 1st. In 2019, that day is Wednesday.

Also known as May Day, Beltane marks the period between the spring equinox and the summer solstice. In the olden days, this was a day set aside for fertility rites and other magick pertaining to new life.

Additionally, this a holiday when we honor both the feminine and masculine elements of divinity—in the form of the Lord and Lady.


This year, Litha will fall on Friday, June 21st.

Litha, or the summer solstice, is the point in the year when the sun is at its strongest—daylight is at its longest and nighttime is at its shortest.

There are a number of different ways to celebrate Litha. These include bonfires, invocations of the Horned God, and just general merriment!


Lammas always falls on August 1st. That will be a Thursday this year.

Lammas (sometimes referred to as Lughnasadh) is a holiday that traditionally marks the beginning of the harvest.

Because of its association with the earth and plant life, this is a holiday meant for personal and spiritual growth. If you’re a fan of green witchcraft or other herbal magick, this is the Sabbat for you!


In 2019, Mabon will take place on Monday, September 23rd.

Mabon is also known as the fall equinox, and it marks the second day of the year when daylight and nighttime come in equal measure. It is the second of the three harvest festivals within Wicca.

Although we Wiccans might not all be farmers, this is still an important Sabbat for cultivating appreciation and gratitude for all the things the Lord and Lady have blessed us with throughout the year.


Samhain always takes places on October 31st. For 2019, that means it falls on a Thursday.

The rest of the world may know it as Halloween, but for Wiccans, October 31st will always be Samhain. (But that’s not to say we don’t love eating all the candy we can get our hands on, too!)

Samhain is a time for honoring our ancestors and any other loved ones that may no longer be with us on the earthly plane. In cultures across the world, this is a holiday filled with rituals and spells involving the dead.

Additionally, Samhain is the time of year when the divide between our physical world and the spiritual world is the smallest. If you’re interested in divination of any kind, this is a good night to perform those kinds of spells.


This year, Yule falls on Saturday, December 21st.

Yule, or the winter solstice, gives us the longest (and usually one of the coldest) nights of the year. So it may seem strange at first to associate it with celebration.

However, it’s actually one of a witch’s most important holidays! Even though things may look cold and gloomy this time of year, it’s all part of the unending cycle of life, death, and rebirth. And even though the winter months might not be our favorite part in that cycle, we honor and respect it nonetheless.

Make 2019 a Year of Wiccan Celebration

Hopefully your planner is now up-to-date when it comes to Wiccan holidays for this year! For newcomers, eight might seem like a lot, but as you move through the course of the year, you’ll begin to see that each one plays an important role in honoring and continuing the circle of life.

If you like what you read, be sure subscribe to our newsletter so you can stay up to date on all the articles we publish and anything exciting we might have in the works. And be sure to share with someone who needs to know these important dates!

Blessed be.


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Wheel of the Year

"Sabbat" redirects here. For other uses of Sabbat, see Sabbat (disambiguation). For Wheel of time, see Wheel of time (disambiguation).

Annual cycle of seasonal festivals observed by many modern Pagans

The Wheel of the Year is an annual cycle of seasonalfestivals, observed by many modern Pagans, consisting of the year's chief solar events (solstices and equinoxes) and the midpoints between them. While names for each festival vary among diverse pagan traditions, syncretic treatments often refer to the four solar events as "quarter days" and the four midpoint events as "cross-quarter days", particularly in Wicca. Differing sects of modern Paganism also vary regarding the precise timing of each celebration, based on distinctions such as lunar phase and geographic hemisphere.

Observing the cycle of the seasons has been important to many people, both ancient and modern. Contemporary Pagan festivals that rely on the Wheel are based to varying degrees on folk traditions, regardless of actual historical pagan practices.[1] Among Wiccans, each festival is also referred to as a sabbat (), based on Gerald Gardner's claim that the term was passed down from the Middle Ages, when the terminology for JewishShabbat was commingled with that of other heretical celebrations.[2] Contemporary conceptions of the Wheel of the Year calendar were largely influenced by mid-20th century British Paganism.


Historical and archaeological evidence suggests ancient pagan and polytheist peoples varied in their cultural observations; Anglo-Saxons celebrated the solstices and equinoxes, while Celts celebrated the seasonal divisions with various fire festivals.[3] In the 10th century Cormac Mac Cárthaigh wrote about "four great fires...lighted up on the four great festivals of the February, May, August, and November."[4]

The contemporary Neopagan festival cycle, prior to being known as the Wheel of the Year, was influenced by works such as The Golden Bough by James George Frazer (1890) and The Witch-Cult in Western Europe (1921) by Margaret Murray. Frazer claimed that Beltane (the beginning of summer) and Samhain (the beginning of winter) were the most important of the four Gaelic festivals mentioned by Cormac. Murray used records from early modern witch trials, as well as the folklore surrounding European witchcraft, in an attempt to identify the festivals celebrated by a supposedly widespread underground pagan religion that had survived into the early modern period. Murray reports a 1661 trial record from Forfar, Scotland, where the accused witch (Issobell Smyth) is connected with meetings held "every quarter at Candlemas, Rud−day, Lambemas, and Hallomas."[5] In The White Goddess (1948) Robert Graves claimed that, despite Christianization, the importance of agricultural and social cycles had preserved the "continuity of the ancient British festal system" consisting of eight holidays: "English social life was based on agriculture, grazing, and hunting" implicit in "the popular celebration of the festivals now known as Candlemas, Lady Day, May Day, Midsummer Day, Lammas, Michaelmas, All-Hallowe'en, and Christmas; it was also secretly preserved as religious doctrine in the covens of the anti-Christian witch-cult."[6]

The Witches' Cottage, where the Bricket Wood coven celebrated their sabbats (2006).

By the late 1950s the Bricket Wood coven led by Gerald Gardner and the Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids led by Ross Nichols had both adopted eight-fold ritual calendars, in order to hold more frequent celebrations. Popular legend holds that Gardner and Nichols developed the calendar during a naturist retreat, where Gardner advocated for celebrating the solstices and equinoxes while Nichols preferred celebrating the four Celtic fire festivals; ultimately they combined the two approaches into a single festival cycle. Though this coordination eventually had the benefit of more closely aligning celebrations between the two early Neopagan groups,[7] Gardner's first published writings omit any mention of the solstices and equinoxes, focusing exclusively on the fire festivals. Gardner initially referred to these as "May eve, August eve, November eve (Hallowe'en), and February eve." Gardner further identified these modern witch festivals with the Gaelic fire festivals Beltene, Lugnasadh, Samhuin, and Brigid.[2] By the mid-1960s, the phrase Wheel of the Year had been coined to describe the yearly cycle of witches' holidays.[8]

Aidan Kelly gave names to the summer solstice (Litha) and equinox holidays (Ostara and Mabon) of Wicca in 1974, which were subsequently promulgated by Timothy Zell through his Green Egg magazine.[9] Popularization of these names happened gradually; in her 1978 book Witchcraft For Tomorrow influential Wiccan author Doreen Valiente did not use Kelly's holiday names, instead simply identifying the solstices and equinoxes ("Lesser Sabbats") by their seasons.[10] Valiente identified the four "Greater Sabbats", or fire festivals, by the names Candlemas, May Eve, Lammas, and Hallowe'en, though she also identified their Irish counterparts as Imbolc, Beltane, Lughnassadh, and Samhain.[11]

Due to early Wicca's influence on Modern Paganism and the syncretic adoption of Anglo-Saxon and Celtic motifs, the most commonly used English festival names for the Wheel of the Year tend to be the Celtic ones introduced by Gardner and the mostly Germanic-derived names introduced by Kelly, even when the celebrations are not based on those cultures. The American Ásatrú movement has adopted, over time, a calendar in which the Heathen major holidays figure alongside many Days of Remembrance which celebrate heroes of the Edda and the Sagas, figures of Germanic history, and the VikingLeif Ericson, who explored and settled Vinland (North America). These festivals are not, however, as evenly distributed throughout the year as in Wicca and other Heathen denominations.


The eight-armed sun crossis often used to represent the Neopagan Wheel of the Year.

In many traditions of modern Pagancosmology, all things are considered to be cyclical, with time as a perpetual cycle of growth and retreat tied to the Sun's annual death and rebirth. This cycle is also viewed as a micro- and macrocosm of other life cycles in an immeasurable series of cycles composing the Universe. The days that fall on the landmarks of the yearly cycle traditionally mark the beginnings and middles of the four seasons. They are regarded with significance and host to major communal festivals. These eight festivals are the most common times for community celebrations.[1][12][13]

While the "major" festivals are usually the quarter and cross-quarter days, other festivals are also celebrated throughout the year, especially among the non-Wiccan traditions such as those of polytheistic reconstructionism and other ethnic traditions.

In Wiccan and Wicca-influenced traditions, the festivals, being tied to solar movements, have generally been steeped in solar mythology and symbolism, centered on the life cycles of the sun. Similarly, the Wiccan esbats are traditionally tied to the lunar cycles. Together, they represent the most common celebrations in Wiccan-influenced forms of Neopaganism, especially in contemporary Witchcraft groups.[12][13]

Winter Solstice (Yule)[edit]

Main article: Yule

See also: Midwinter, Brumalia, and Saturnalia

Midwinter, known commonly as Yule or within modern Druid traditions as Alban Arthan,[14] has been recognised as a significant turning point in the yearly cycle since the late Stone Age. The ancient megalithic sites of Newgrange and Stonehenge, carefully aligned with the solstice sunrise and sunset, exemplify this.[15] The reversal of the Sun's ebbing presence in the sky symbolizes the rebirth of the solar god and presages the return of fertile seasons. From Germanic to Roman tradition, this is the most important time of celebration.[16][17]

Practices vary, but sacrifice offerings, feasting, and gift giving are common elements of Midwinter festivities. Bringing sprigs and wreaths of evergreenery (such as holly, ivy, mistletoe, yew, and pine) into the home and tree decorating are also common during this time.[16][18][19]

In Roman traditions additional festivities take place during the six days leading up to Midwinter.[17]

Imbolc (Candlemas)[edit]

Main articles: Imbolc and Candlemas

See also: Dísablót

The cross-quarter day following Midwinter falls on the first of February and traditionally marks the first stirrings of spring. It aligns with the contemporary observance of Groundhog Day. It is time for purification and spring cleaning in anticipation of the year's new life. In Rome, it was historically a shepherd's holiday,[20] while the Celts associated it with the onset of ewes' lactation, prior to birthing the spring lambs.[21][22]

For Celtic pagans, the festival is dedicated to the goddess Brigid, daughter of The Dagda and one of the Tuatha Dé Danann.[22]

Among Reclaiming tradition Witches, this is the traditional time for pledges and rededications for the coming year[23] and for initiation among Dianic Wiccans.[24]

Spring Equinox (Ostara)[edit]

See also: Liberalia and Hilaria

The annual cycle of insolation for the northern hemisphere (Sun energy, shown in blue) with key points for seasons (middle), quarter days(top) and cross-quarter days (bottom) along with months (lower) and Zodiac houses (upper). The cycle of temperature (shown in pink) is delayed by seasonal lag.

Derived from a reconstruction produced by linguist Jacob Grimm of an Old High German form of the Old English goddess name Ēostre, Ostara marks the vernal equinox in some modern Pagan traditions.

Known as Alban Eilir to modern Druid traditions, this holiday is the second of three spring celebrations (the midpoint between Imbolc and Beltane), during which light and darkness are again in balance, with light on the rise. It is a time of new beginnings and of life emerging further from the grips of winter.[25]

Beltane (May Eve)[edit]

Main article: Beltane

See also: May Day, Floralia, and Walpurgis Night

Traditionally the first day of summer in Ireland, in Rome the earliest celebrations appeared in pre-Christian times with the festival of Flora, the Roman goddess of flowers, and the Walpurgisnacht celebrations of the Germanic countries.[26]

Since the Christianisation of Europe, a more secular version of the festival has continued in Europe and America, commonly referred to as May Day. In this form, it is well known for maypole dancing and the crowning of the Queen of the May.

Celebrated by many pagan traditions, among modern Druids this festival recognizes the power of life in its fullness, the greening of the world, youthfulness and flourishing.[27]

Summer Solstice (Litha)[edit]

Main articles: Midsummer and Summer solstice

Midsummer is one of the four solar holidays and is considered the turning point at which summer reaches its height and the sun shines longest. Among the Wiccan sabbats, Midsummer is preceded by Beltane, and followed by Lammas or Lughnasadh.

Some Wiccan traditions call the festival Litha, a name occurring in Bede's The Reckoning of Time (De Temporum Ratione, 8th century), which preserves a list of the (then-obsolete) Anglo-Saxon names for the twelve months. Ærra Liða (first or precedingLiða) roughly corresponds to June in the Gregorian calendar, and Æfterra Liða (followingLiða) to July. Bede writes that "Litha means gentle or navigable, because in both these months the calm breezes are gentle and they were wont to sail upon the smooth sea".[28]

Modern Druids celebrate this festival as Alban Hefin. The sun in its greatest strength is greeted and celebrated on this holiday. While it is the time of greatest strength of the solar current, it also marks a turning point, for the sun also begins its time of decline as the wheel of the year turns. Arguably the most important festival of the Druid traditions, due to the great focus on the sun and its light as a symbol of divine inspiration. Druid groups frequently celebrate this event at Stonehenge.[29]

Lughnasadh (Lammas)[edit]

Main articles: Lammas and Lughnasadh

Lammas or Lughnasadh () is the first of the three Wiccan harvest festivals, the other two being the autumnal equinox (or Mabon) and Samhain. Wiccans mark the holiday by baking a figure of the god in bread and eating it, to symbolise the sanctity and importance of the harvest. Celebrations vary, as not all Pagans are Wiccans. The Irish name Lughnasadh[3][30] is used in some traditions to designate this holiday. Wiccan celebrations of this holiday are neither generally based on Celtic culture nor centered on the Celtic deity Lugh. This name seems to have been a late adoption among Wiccans. In early versions of Wiccan literature the festival is referred to as August Eve.[31]

The name Lammas (contraction of loaf mass) implies it is an agrarian-based festival and feast of thanksgiving for grain and bread, which symbolises the first fruits of the harvest. Christian festivals may incorporate elements from the Pagan Ritual.[30][32]

Autumn Equinox (Mabon)[edit]

Main article: September equinox

The holiday of the autumnal equinox, Harvest Home, Mabon, the Feast of the Ingathering, Meán Fómhair, An Clabhsúr, or Alban Elfed (in Neo-Druid traditions), is a modern Pagan ritual of thanksgiving for the fruits of the earth and a recognition of the need to share them to secure the blessings of the Goddess and the Gods during the coming winter months. The name Mabon was coined by Aidan Kelly around 1970 as a reference to Mabon ap Modron, a character from Welsh mythology.[33] Among the sabbats, it is the second of the three Pagan harvest festivals, preceded by Lammas / Lughnasadh and followed by Samhain.

Samhain (Hallowe'en)[edit]

Neopagans honoring the dead as part of a Samhain ritual

Main articles: Samhain and Halloween

Samhain () is considered by Wiccans to be one of the four Greater Sabbats. Samhain is considered by some as a time to celebrate the lives of those who have passed on, and it often involves paying respect to ancestors, family members, elders of the faith, friends, pets, and other loved ones who have died. Aligned with the contemporary observance of Halloween and Day of the Dead. In some rituals the spirits of the departed are invited to attend the festivities. It is seen as a festival of darkness, which is balanced at the opposite point of the wheel by the festival of Beltane, which is celebrated as a festival of light and fertility.[34]

Many Pagans believe that at Samhain the veil between this world and the afterlife is at its thinnest point of the whole year, making it easier to communicate with those who have left this world.[13]

Minor festivals[edit]

In addition to the eight major holidays common to most modern Pagans, there are a number of minor holidays during the year to commemorate various events.


Some of the holidays listed in the "Runic Era Calendar" of the Ásatrú Alliance:

  • Vali's Blot, celebration dedicated to the god Váli and to love — 14 February[35]
  • Feast of the Einherjar, celebration to honor kin who died in battle — 11 November[35]
  • Ancestors' Blot, celebration of one's own ancestry or the common ancestors of a Germanicethnicity — 11 November[36]
  • Yggdrasil Day, celebration of the world treeYggdrasil, of the reality world it represents, of trees and nature — 22 April[35]
  • Winterfinding, celebration which marks the beginning of winter, held on a date between Haustblot and Winternights (mid-October)[35][37]
  • Summerfinding, celebration which marks the beginning of summer, held on a date between Ostara and Walpurgis Night (mid-April)[35][37]


Celebration commonly takes place outdoors in the form of a communal gathering.

Dates of celebration[edit]

The precise dates on which festivals are celebrated are often flexible. Dates may be on the days of the quarter and cross-quarter days proper, the nearest full moon, the nearest new moon, or the nearest weekend for secular convenience. The festivals were originally celebrated by peoples in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Consequently, the traditional times for seasonal celebrations do not agree with the seasons in the Southern Hemisphere or near the equator. Pagans in the Southern Hemisphere often advance these dates by six months to coincide with their own seasons.[13][38][39][40]


See also: Blótan, Holocaustos, Sacrificium Romanam, Thyesthai, Equus October, and Ritual of oak and mistletoe

Offerings of food, drink, various objects, etc. have been central in ritualpropitiation and veneration for millennia. Modern Pagan practice strongly avoids sacrificing animals in favour of grains, herbs, milk, wines, incense, baked goods, minerals, etc. The exception being with ritual feasts including meat, where the inedible parts of the animal are often burned as offerings while the community eats the rest.[41][42]

Sacrifices are typically offered to gods and ancestors by burning them. Burying and leaving offerings in the open are also common in certain circumstances. The purpose of offering is to benefit the venerated, show gratitude, and give something back, strengthening the bonds between humans and divine and between members of a community.[41][43][44]



See also: Celtic mythology

It is a misconception in some quarters of the Neopagan community, influenced by the writings of Robert Graves,[45] that historical Celts had an overarching narrative for the entire cycle of the year. While the various Celtic calendars include some cyclical patterns, and a belief in the balance of light and dark, these beliefs vary between the different Celtic cultures. Modern preservationists and revivalists usually observe the four 'fire festivals' of the Gaelic Calendar, and some also observe local festivals that are held on dates of significance in the different Celtic nations.[46][47]


Kołomir– the Slavicexample of Wheel of the Year indicating seasons of the year. Four-point and eight-point swastika-shaped wheels were more common.

See also: Slavic mythology

Slavic mythology tells of a persisting conflict involving Perun, god of thunder and lightning, and Veles, the black god and horned god of the underworld. Enmity between the two is initiated by Veles' annual ascent up the world tree in the form of a huge serpent and his ultimate theft of Perun's divine cattle from the heavenly domain. Perun retaliates to this challenge of the divine order by pursuing Veles, attacking with his lightning bolts from the sky. Veles taunts Perun and flees, transforming himself into various animals and hiding behind trees, houses, even people. (Lightning bolts striking down trees or homes were explained as results of this.) In the end Perun overcomes and defeats Veles, returning him to his place in the realm of the dead. Thus the order of the world is maintained.[48][49][50]

The idea that storms and thunder are actually divine battle is pivotal to the changing of the seasons. Dry periods are identified as chaotic results of Veles' thievery. This duality and conflict represents an opposition of the natural principles of earth, water, substance, and chaos (Veles) and of heaven, fire, spirit, order (Perun), not a clash of good and evil. The cosmic battle between the two also echoes the ancient Indo-European narrative of a fight between the sky-borne storm god and chthonicdragon.

On the great night (New Year), two children of Perun are born, Jarilo, god of fertility and vegetation and son of the Moon, and Morana, goddess of nature and death and daughter of the Sun. On the same night, the infant Jarilo is snatched and taken to the underworld, where Veles raises him as his own. At the time of the spring equinox, Jarilo returns across the sea from the world of the dead, bringing with him fertility and spring from the evergreen underworld into the realm of the living. He meets his sister Morana and courts her. With the beginning of summer, the two are married bringing fertility and abundance to Earth, ensuring a bountiful harvest. The union of Perun's kin and Veles' stepson brings peace between two great gods, staving off storms which could damage the harvest. After the harvest, however, Jarilo is unfaithful to his wife and she vengefully slays him, returning him to the underworld and renewing enmity between Perun and Veles. Without her husband, god of fertility and vegetation, Morana – and all of nature with her – withers and freezes in the ensuing winter. She grows into the old and dangerous goddess of darkness and frost, eventually dying by the year's end only to be reborn again with her brother in the new year.[48][49]

Modern Wicca and Neo-druidism[edit]

Further information: Wiccan views of divinity

In Wicca, the narrative of the Wheel of the Year traditionally centres on the sacred marriage of the God and the Goddess and the god/goddess duality. In this cycle, the God is perpetually born from the Goddess at Yule, grows in power at the vernal equinox (as does the Goddess, now in her maiden aspect), courts and impregnates the Goddess at Beltane, reaches his peak at the summer solstice, wanes in power at Lammas, passes into the underworld at Samhain (taking with him the fertility of the Goddess/Earth, who is now in her crone aspect) until he is once again born from Her mother/crone aspect at Yule. The Goddess, in turn, ages and rejuvenates endlessly with the seasons, being courted by and giving birth to the Horned God.[13][51][52]

Many Wiccan, Neo-Druid, and eclectic Neopagans incorporate a narrative of the Holly King and Oak King as rulers of the waning year and the waxing year respectively. These two figures battle endlessly with the turning of the seasons. At the summer solstice, the Holly King defeats the Oak King and commences his reign.[53]: 94  After the Autumn equinox the Oak King slowly begins to regain his power as the sun begins to wane. Come the winter solstice the Oak King in turn vanquishes the Holly King.[53]: 137 After the spring equinox the sun begins to wax again and the Holly King slowly regains his strength until he once again defeats the Oak King at the summer solstice. The two are ultimately seen as essential parts of a whole, light and dark aspects of the male God, and would not exist without each other.[13][54][55][56]

The Holly King is often portrayed as a woodsy figure, similar to the modern Santa Claus, dressed in red with sprigs of holly in his hair and the Oak King as a fertility god.[57][58]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ abHarvey, Graham (1994). "The Roots of Pagan Ecology". Journal of Contemporary Religion. 9 (3): 38–41. doi:10.1080/13537909408580720.
  2. ^ abGardner, Gerald (1954). Witchcraft Today. p. 147.
  3. ^ abHutton, Ronald (8 December 1993), The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles, Oxford, Blackwell, pp. 337–341, ISBN 
  4. ^Murray, Margaret. 1931. The God of the Witches.
  5. ^Kinloch, George Ritchie. Reliquiae Antiquae Scoticae. Edinburgh, 1848.
  6. ^Robert Graves, The White Goddess, New York: Creative Age Press, 1948. Published in London by Faber & Faber.
  7. ^Lamond, Frederic (2004), Fifty Years of Wicca, Sutton Mallet, England: Green Magic, pp. 16–17, ISBN 
  8. ^Glass, Justine (1965). Witchcraft, the Sixth Sense—and Us. London: Neville Spearman. p. 98.
  9. ^Kelly, Aidan. About Naming Ostara, Litha, and Mabon. Including Paganism. Patheos. Accessed 8 May 2019.
  10. ^Beckett, John. Enough With the Mabon Hate! Under the Ancient Oaks. Patheos. 11 Sep 2018.
  11. ^Valiente, Doreen. 1978. Witchcraft For Tomorrow. London: Robert Hale Limited.
  12. ^ abZell-Ravenheart, Oberon; Zell-Ravenheart, Morning Glory (2006). "Book III: Wheel of the Year". In Kirsten Dalley and Artemisia (ed.). Creating Circles & Ceremonies: Rituals for All Seasons And Reasons. Book-Mart Press. p. 192. ISBN .
  13. ^ abcdefDrury, Nevill (2009). "The Modern Magical Revival: Esbats and Sabbats". In Pizza, Murphy; Lewis, James R (eds.). Handbook of Contemporary Paganism. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. pp. 63–67. ISBN .
  14. ^"Winter Solstice - Alban Arthan". Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  15. ^Johnson, Anthony (2008). Solving Stonehenge: The New Key to an Ancient Enigma. Thames & Hudson. pp. 252–253. ISBN .
  16. ^ abZell-Ravenheart, Oberon; Zell-Ravenheart, Morning Glory (2006). "7. Yule (Winter Solstice)". Creating Circles & Ceremonies: Rituals for All Seasons And Reasons. Career Press. pp. 250–252. ISBN .
  17. ^ abGagarin, Michael (2010). "S". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome: Volume 1. Oxford University Press. p. 231. ISBN .
  18. ^Selbie, John A. (1914). "Gifts (Greek and Roman)". In Hastings, James (ed.). Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 6. New York; Edinburgh: Charles Scribner's Sons; T. & T. Clark. p. 212.
  19. ^Harvey, Graham (2000). "1: Celebrating the Seasons". Contemporary Paganism: Listening People, Speaking Earth. NYU Press. pp. 6–8. ISBN .
  20. ^Plutarch. Life of Caesar. Parallel Lives. Alexander and Caesar.
  21. ^Chadwick, Nora K.; Cunliffe, Barry (1970). The Celts. Harmondsworth: Penguin. p. 181. ISBN .
  22. ^ abRabinovitch, Shelley T.; Lewis, James R. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism. Citadel Press. pp. 232–233. ISBN .
  23. ^Starhawk (1979). The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess (1989 revised ed.). New York, New York: Harper and Row. pp. 7–186, 246. ISBN .
  24. ^Budapest, Zsuzsanna E. (1980). The Holy Book of Women's Mysteries. ISBN .
  25. ^"Deeper into Alban Eilir". Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  26. ^Zell-Ravenheart, Oberon; Zell-Ravenheart, Morning Glory (2006). "Book III: Wheel of the Year". In Kirsten Dalley and Artemisia (ed.). Creating Circles & Ceremonies: Rituals for All Seasons And Reasons. Book-Mart Press. pp. 203–206. ISBN .
  27. ^"Deeper Into Beltane". Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  28. ^Beda, Venerabilis (1999). Bede, the reckoning of time. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 54. ISBN .
  29. ^"Deeper into Alban Hefin". Order of Bards, Ovates and Druids. 18 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  30. ^ abStarhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp.191-2 (revised edition)
  31. ^"Gardnerian Book of Shadows: The Sabbat Rituals: August Eve". Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  32. ^"Lammas (n.)". Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  33. ^Zell-Ravenheart, Oberon Zell-Ravenheart & Morning Glory (2006). Creating circles & ceremonies : rituals for all seasons & reasons. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books. p. 227. ISBN .
  34. ^Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp.193-6 (revised edition)
  35. ^ abcdef"Runic Era Calender". Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  36. ^Arith Härger (November 2012). "Ancestors Blot 11th of November". Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  37. ^ abWilliam (Bil) R Linzie (July 2003). "Germanic Spirituality"(PDF). p. 27.
  38. ^Hume, Lynne (1997). Witchcraft and Paganism in Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. ISBN .
  39. ^Vos, Donna (2002). Dancing Under an African Moon: Paganism and Wicca in South Africa. Cape Town: Zebra Press. pp. 79–86. ISBN .
  40. ^Bodsworth, Roxanne T (2003). Sunwyse: Celebrating the Sacred Wheel of the Year in Australia. Victoria, Australia: Hihorse Publishing. ISBN .
  41. ^ abThomas, Kirk. "The Nature of Sacrifice". Cosmology. Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  42. ^Bradbury, Scott (1995). "Julian's Pagan Revival and the Decline of Blood Sacrifice". Phoenix. 49 (4 (Winter)): 331–356. doi:10.2307/1088885. JSTOR 1088885.
  43. ^Krasskova, Galina; Wodening, Swain (forward) (2005). Exploring the northern tradition: A guide to the gods, lore, rites, and celebrations from the Norse, German, and Anglo-Saxon traditions. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books. ISBN .
  44. ^Meuli 1946
  45. ^Hutton, Ronald (1993). The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford: Blackwell publishing. p. 145. ISBN .
  46. ^Bonewits, Isaac (2006). Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, New York: Kensington Publishing Group. pp. 179, 183–4, 128–140. ISBN .
  47. ^McColman, Carl (2003). Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press. pp. 12, 51. ISBN .
  48. ^ abLeeming, David (2005). "A-Z Entries". The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 360. ISBN .
  49. ^ abHlobil, Karel (2009). "Chapter Eleven:Slavic Mythology". Before You. Insomniac Press. ISBN .
  50. ^Lyle, Emily (2008). "Time and the Indo-European Gods in the Slavic Context"(PDF). Studia Mythologica Slavica. 11: 115–126. doi:10.3986/sms.v11i0.1691.
  51. ^Vivianne Crowley (1989). Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age. London: Aquarian Press. pp. 162–200. ISBN .
  52. ^Starhawk (1999). The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess: 20th Anniversary Edition. San Francisco: HarperOne. pp. 197–213. ISBN .
  53. ^ abFarrar, Janet & Stewart Farrar; with line illustrations by Stewart; Farrar, photographs by Ian David & Stewart (1984). A witches bible. New York: Magickal Childe. ISBN .
  54. ^Farrar, Janet and Stewart (1988). Eight Sabbats for Witches, revised edition. Phoenix Publishing. ISBN .
  55. ^Joanne Pearson (2002). A Popular Dictionary of Paganism. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd. p. 80. ISBN .
  56. ^Carl McColman (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Paganism. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha. p. 121. ISBN .
  57. ^Raven Grimassi (2000). Encyclopedia of Wicca & Witchcraft. St Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 219. ISBN .
  58. ^Wigington, Patti. "The Legend of the Holly King and the Oak King". Retrieved 25 October 2012.

External links[edit]


Sabbats 2019 pagan

It is not known) a pancake and a bag in her hands. Everything calmed myself Oh, today I am a mistress and this collar is for him, I will kick his ass with a. Whip, and even better, I will drive a big fat rubber dick into his cute elastic ass. (oh, this is not it).

Yule or the Winter Solstice -- Wiccan Sabbats -- Wiccan Holidays

She did the same and, having stumbled upon such an "unnecessary" device, with a dexterous movement of her fingers unbuttoned the fastener, I felt. A certain freedom. but now I didn't care. I rather wanted to touch her breasts, her nipples were tense, my breasts fit into my palm, I caressed her nipples, intuitively doing what I.

Myself would be pleased with.

You will also be interested:

I did not share the general joy, as I really did not like hospitals and all kinds of procedures. The next day we were given our cards in the class and the class slowly moved towards a large, white, multi-storey building. So we came. Everyone was given shoe covers and we went to the first doctor.

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