American actress (1922–1973)
Veronica Lake, c. 1940s
Constance Frances Marie Ockelman
(1922-11-14)November 14, 1922
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
|Died||July 7, 1973(1973-07-07) (aged 50)|
Burlington, Vermont, U.S.
|Other names||Constance Keane|
|Education||St. Bernard's School (Saranac Lake, New York)|
Miami High School
|Years active||1939–1954; 1966; 1970|
John S. Detlie
(m. 1940; div. 1943)
(m. 1944; div. 1952)
Joseph Allan McCarthy
(m. 1955; div. 1959)
Veronica Lake (born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman; November 14, 1922 – July 7, 1973) was an American film, stage, and television actress. Lake was best known for her femme fatale roles in film noirs with Alan Ladd during the 1940s and her peek-a-boo hairstyle. By the late 1940s, Lake's career began to decline, due in part to her alcoholism. She made only one film in the 1950s, but made several guest appearances on television. She returned to the big screen in 1966 in the film Footsteps in the Snow (1966), but the role failed to revitalize her career.
Lake's memoir, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, was published in 1970. Her final screen role was in a low-budget horror film, Flesh Feast (1970). After years of heavy drinking, Lake died at the age of 50 in July 1973, from hepatitis and acute kidney injury.
Lake was born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Her father, Harry Eugene Ockelman, was of German and Irish descent, and worked for an oil company aboard a ship. He died in an industrial explosion in Philadelphia in 1932. Lake's mother, Constance Frances Charlotta (née Trimble; 1902–1992), of Irish descent, married Anthony Keane, a newspaper staff artist, also of Irish descent, in 1933, and Lake began using his surname.
The Keanes lived in Saranac Lake, New York, where young Lake attended St. Bernard's School. She was then sent to Villa Maria, an all-girls Catholic boarding school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from which she was expelled. Lake later claimed she attended McGill University and took a premed course for a year, intending to become a surgeon. This claim was included in several press biographies, although Lake later declared it was bogus. Lake subsequently apologized to the president of McGill, who was simply amused when she explained her habit of self-dramatizing. When her stepfather fell ill during her second year[vague], the Keane family later moved to Miami, Florida. Lake attended Miami High School, where she was known for her beauty. She had a troubled childhood and was diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to her mother.
In 1938, the Keanes moved to Beverly Hills, California. While briefly under contract to MGM, Lake enrolled in that studio's acting farm, the Bliss-Hayden School of Acting (now the Beverly Hills Playhouse). She made friends with a girl named Gwen Horn and accompanied her when Horn went to audition at RKO. She appeared in the play Thought for Food in January 1939. A theatre critic from the Los Angeles Times called her "a fetching little trick" for her appearance in She Made Her Bed.
She also appeared as an extra in a number of movies. Keane's first appearance on screen was for RKO, playing a small role as one of several students in the film Sorority House (1939). The part wound up being cut from the film, but she was encouraged to continue. Similar roles followed, including All Women Have Secrets (1939), Dancing Co-Ed (also 1939), Young as You Feel (1940), and Forty Little Mothers (also 1940). Forty Little Mothers was the first time she let her hair down on screen.
I Wanted Wings and stardom
Lake attracted the interest of Fred Wilcox, an assistant director, who shot a test scene of her performing from a play and showed it to an agent. The agent, in turn, showed it to producer Arthur Hornblow Jr., who was looking for a new girl to play the part of a nightclub singer in a military drama, I Wanted Wings (1940). The role would make Lake, still in her teens, a star. Hornblow changed the actress's name to Veronica Lake. According to him, her eyes, "calm and clear like a blue lake", were the inspiration for her new name.
It was during the filming of I Wanted Wings that Lake developed her signature look. Lake's long blonde hair accidentally fell over her right eye during a take and created a "peek-a-boo" effect. "I was playing a sympathetic drunk, I had my arm on a table ... it slipped ... and my hair — it was always baby fine and had this natural break — fell over my face ... It became my trademark and purely by accident", she recalled.
I Wanted Wings was a big hit. The hairstyle became Lake's trademark and was widely copied by women.
Even before the film came out, Lake was dubbed "the find of 1941". However, Lake did not think this meant she would have a long career and maintained her goal was to be a surgeon. "Only the older actors keep on a long time ... I don't want to hang on after I've reached a peak. I'll go back to medical school", she said.
Series of classic movies
Paramount announced two follow-up movies, China Pass and Blonde Venus. Instead, Lake was cast in Preston Sturges's Sullivan's Travels with Joel McCrea. She was six months pregnant when filming began.
Paramount put Lake in a thriller, This Gun for Hire (1942), with Robert Preston as her love interest. However, she shared more scenes with Alan Ladd; the two of them were so popular together that they would be reteamed in lead roles for three more films. Both had cameos in Star Spangled Rhythm (1942), an all-star Paramount film.
Lake was meant to be reunited with McCrea in another comedy, I Married a Witch, (also 1942) produced by Sturges and directed by René Clair, but McCrea refused to act with her again, reportedly saying, "Life's too short for two films with Veronica Lake". Production was delayed, enabling Lake to be reunited with Ladd in The Glass Key (again 1942), replacing Patricia Morison. The male lead in I Married a Witch was eventually played by Fredric March and the resulting movie, like The Glass Key, was successful at the box office. René Clair, the director of I Married a Witch, said of Lake, "She was a very gifted girl, but she didn't believe she was gifted."
Lake was meant to co-star with Charles Boyer in Hong Kong for Arthur Hornblow, but it was not made. She received acclaim for her part as a suicidal nurse in So Proudly We Hail! (1943). At the peak of her career, she earned $4,500 a week.
Lake had a complex personality and acquired a reputation for being difficult to work with. Eddie Bracken, her co-star in Star Spangled Rhythm, in which Lake appeared in a musical number, was quoted as saying, "She was known as 'The Bitch' and she deserved the title." However, Lake and McCrea did make another film together, Ramrod (1947). During filming of The Blue Dahlia (1946), screenwriter Raymond Chandler referred to her as "Moronica Lake".
During World War II, Lake changed her trademark peek-a-boo hairstyle at the urging of the government to encourage women working in war industry factories to adopt more practical, safer hairstyles. Although the change helped to decrease accidents involving women getting their hair caught in machinery, doing so may have damaged Lake's career. She also became a popular pin-up girl for soldiers during World War II and traveled throughout the United States to raise money for war bonds.
Decline as star
Lake's career faltered with her unsympathetic role as Nazi spy Dora Bruckman in The Hour Before the Dawn (1944), shot in mid 1943. Scathing reviews of The Hour Before the Dawn included criticism of her rather unconvincing German accent. She had begun drinking more heavily during this period, and a growing number of people refused to work with her. Lake had a number of months off work, during which time she lost a child and was divorced.
In early 1944 she was brought back in Bring On the Girls (1945), Lake's first proper musical, although she had sung in This Gun for Hire and Star Spangled Rhythm. She was teamed with Eddie Bracken and Sonny Tufts. The movie was not a financial success.
In June 1944, Lake appeared at a war bond drive in Boston, where her services as a dishwasher were auctioned off. She also performed in a revue, with papers saying her "talk was on the grim side".Hedda Hopper later claimed this appearance was responsible for Paramount giving her the third lead in Out of This World (1945), supporting Diana Lynn and Bracken, saying "Lake clipped her own wings in her Boston bond appearance ... It's lucky for Lake, after Boston, that she isn't out of pictures".
Lake had a relatively minor role in a film produced by John Houseman, Miss Susie Slagle's (also 1945), co starring Sonny Tufts; Lake was top billed but her part was smaller than Joan Caulfield. In November 1944 she made a third film with Bracken, Hold That Blonde (1945). She liked this part saying "it's a comedy, rather like what Carole Lombard used to do ... It represents a real change of pace".
Lake then made a second film produced by John Houseman, The Blue Dahlia (1946), which reunited her with Ladd. While waiting for the films to be released in 1945, she took stock of her career, claiming, "I had to learn about acting. I've played all sorts of parts, taken just what came along regardless of high merit. In fact, I've been a sort of general utility person. I haven't liked all the roles. One or two were pretty bad".
Lake expressed interest in renegotiating her deal with Paramount:
The studio feels that way about it too. They have indicated they are going to fuss more about the pictures in which I appear. I think I'll enjoy being fussed about ... I want this to be the turning point and I think that it will. I am free and clear of unpleasant characters, unless they are strongly justified. I've had a varied experience playing them and also appearing as heroines. The roles themselves haven't been noteworthy and sometimes not even especially spotlighted, but I think they've all been beneficial in one way or another. From here on there should be a certain pattern of development, and that is what I am going to fight for if necessary, though I don't believe it will be because they are so understanding here at Paramount.
Since So Proudly We Hail only The Blue Dahlia had been a hit. She made her first film outside Paramount since she became a star, a Western, Ramrod (1947), directed by her then-husband Andre DeToth, which reunited her with Joel McCrea, despite his earlier reservation. It was successful.
Final years at Paramount
Back at her home studio she had a cameo in Variety Girl (1947) then was united with Ladd for the last time in Saigon (1948), in which she returned to her former peek-a-boo hairstyle; the movie was not particularly well received. Neither was a romantic drama, Isn't It Romantic (also 1948) or a comedy The Sainted Sisters (1948). In 1948 Paramount decided not to renew Lake's contract.
Lake moved to 20th Century Fox to make Slattery's Hurricane (1949), directed by DeToth. It was only a support role and there were not many other offers.
In 1950 it was announced she and DeToth would make Before I Wake (from a suspense novel by Mel Devrett) and Flanagan Boy. Neither was made.
She appeared in Stronghold (1951), which she later described as "a dog", an independent production from Lippert Pictures shot in Mexico. She later sued for unpaid wages on the film. Lake and DeToth filed for bankruptcy that same year.
The IRS later seized their home for unpaid taxes. On the verge of a nervous breakdown and bankrupt, Lake ran away, left DeToth, and flew alone to New York.
"They said, 'She'll be back in a couple of months,'" recalled Lake. "Well I never returned. Enough was enough already. Did I want to be one of the walking dead or a real person?"
She performed in summer stock theatre and in stage roles in England. In October 1955, she collapsed in Detroit, where she had been appearing on stage in The Little Hut.
After her third divorce, Lake drifted between cheap hotels in New York City, and was arrested several times for public drunkenness and disorderly conduct. In 1962, a New York Post reporter found her living at the all-women's Martha Washington Hotel in Manhattan, working as a waitress downstairs in the cocktail lounge. She was working under the name "Connie de Toth". Lake said she took the job in part because "I like people. I like to talk to them".
The reporter's widely distributed story led to speculation that Lake was destitute. After the story ran, fans of Lake sent her money which she returned as "a matter of pride". Lake vehemently denied that she was destitute and stated, "It's as though people were making me out to be down-and-out. I wasn't. I was paying $190 a month rent then, and that's a long way from being broke". The story did revive some interest in Lake and led to some television and stage appearances, most notably in the 1963 off-Broadway revival of the musical Best Foot Forward.
In 1966, she had a brief stint as a television hostess in Baltimore, Maryland, along with a largely ignored film role in Footsteps in the Snow. She also continued appearing in stage roles. She went to Freeport in the Bahamas to visit a friend and ended up living there for a few years.
Lake's memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, which she dictated to the writer Donald Bain, were published in the United Kingdom in 1969, and in the United States the following year. In the book, Lake discusses her career, her failed marriages, her romances with Howard Hughes, Tommy Manville and Aristotle Onassis, her alcoholism, and her guilt over not spending enough time with her children. In the book, Lake stated to Bain that her mother pushed her into a career as an actress. Bain quoted Lake, looking back at her career, as saying, "I never did cheesecake like Ann Sheridan or Betty Grable. I just used my hair". She also laughed off the term "sex symbol" and instead referred to herself as a "sex zombie".
When she went to the UK to promote her book in 1969 she received an offer to appear on stage in Madam Chairman. Also in 1969, Lake essayed the role of Blanche DuBois in a revival of A Streetcar Named Desire on the English stage; her performance won rave reviews. With the proceeds from her autobiography, after she had divided them with Bain, she co-produced and starred in her final film, Flesh Feast (1970), a low-budget horror movie with a Nazi-myth storyline.
Lake's first marriage was to art director John S. Detlie, in 1940. They had a daughter, Elaine (born in 1941), and a son, Anthony (born July 8, 1943). According to news from the time, Lake's son was born prematurely after she tripped on a lighting cable while filming a movie. Anthony died on July 15, 1943. Lake and Detlie separated in August 1943 and divorced in December 1943.
In 1944, Lake married film director Andre DeToth with whom she had a son, Andre Anthony Michael III (known as Michael DeToth), and a daughter, Diana (born October 1948). Days before Diana's birth, Lake's mother sued her for support payments. After purchasing an airplane for de Toth, Lake earned her pilot's license in 1946. She later flew solo between Los Angeles and New York when leaving him. Lake and DeToth divorced in 1952.
In September 1955, she married songwriter Joseph Allan McCarthy. They were divorced in 1959. In 1969, she revealed that she rarely saw her children.
In June 1973, Lake returned from her autobiography promotion and summer stock tour in England to the United States and while traveling in Vermont, visited a local doctor, complaining of stomach pains. She was discovered to have cirrhosis of the liver as a result of her years of drinking, and on June 26, she checked into the University of Vermont Medical Center in Burlington.
She died there on July 7, 1973, of acute hepatitis and acute kidney injury. Her son Michael claimed her body. Lake's memorial service was held at the Universal Chapel in New York City on July 11.
She was cremated and, according to her wishes, her ashes were scattered off the coast of the Virgin Islands. In 2004, some of Lake's ashes were reportedly found in a New York antique store.
For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Lake has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6918 Hollywood Boulevard.
Selected stage credits
|Thought for Food||Bliss Hayden Theatre, Beverly Hills||1939: January–February|
|She Made Her Bed||Bliss Hayden Theatre, Beverly Hills||1939: July–August|
|Private Confusion||Bliss Hayden Theatre, Beverly Hills||1940: October|
|Direct Hit||1944: June|
|The Voice of the Turtle||Atlanta||1951: February|
|The Curtain Rises||Olney Theatre||1951|
|Peter Pan||Road tour||1951|
|Masquerade||Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia||1953|
|The Little Hut||Road tour, including:|
Erlanger Theatre, Buffalo
Murat Theatre, Indianapolis
Shubert Theatre, Detroit
Shubert Theatre, Cincinnati
|Bell Book and Candle||1956|
|Fair Game||Road tour, including:|
Arena Playhouse, Atlanta
Hinsdale Strawhatter, Chicago
|Best Foot Forward||Stage 73 (Off-Broadway), Manhattan||1963|
|Madam Chairman||Tour of English provinces||1969|
|A Streetcar Named Desire||New Theatre, Bromley||1969|
In popular culture
Clips from her role in The Glass Key (1942) were integrated into the film Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid (1982) as character Monica Stillpond.
Lake was one of the models for the animated character Jessica Rabbit in the film Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (1988), especially for her hairstyle.
In the 1997 film L.A. Confidential, Kim Basinger won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of a prostitute who is a Veronica Lake look-alike.
A geographical feature called "Lake Veronica" was a recurring joke in the Rocky and Bullwinkle series and film.
In Moose: Chapters from My Life (the 2013, posthumously released autobiography by Robert B. Sherman) writes about his teenage friendship with Lake.
Veronica Lake's image was used as a sight gag in the movie The Major and the Minor (1942) with Ginger Rogers and Ray Milland.
|March 30, 1943||Lux Radio Theater||I Wanted Wings|
|February 9, 1943||Bob Hope||Guest star Paulette Goddard and Veronica Lake|
|February 16, 1943||Burns and Allen||Guest star Veronica Lake|
|November 1, 1943||Lux Radio Theater||So Proudly We Hail!|
|January 8, 1944||Command Performance||Guest star Veronica Lake|
|February 18, 1945||Charlie McCarthy||Guest stars Ginny Simms and Veronica Lake|
|April 2, 1945||The Screen Guild Theater||This Gun for Hire|
|November 18, 1946||Lux Radio Theatre||O.S.S.|
|April 20, 1947||Exploring the Unknown||The Dark Curtain|
|April 21, 1949||The Screen Guild Theater||The Blue Dahlia|
|March 6, 1950||Lux Radio Theatre||Slattery's Hurricane|
|December 15, 1950||Duffy's Tavern||"Archie Wants Veronica Lake to Help Promote a New Latin Singer"|
|December 12, 1954||The Jack Benny Program||"A Trip to Palm Springs"|
- ^U.S. Census, April 1, 1930, State of Washington, County of Kings, enumeration district 1657, page 8-B, family 151, Constance Ockelman (sic), age 7 years, born in Seattle. Her father, Harry Ockelman, Jr., is listed as unmarried in the 1920 United States Census of Pennsylvania.
- ^"Person Details for Harry E Ockelman in household of Harry Ockelman, "United States Census, 1910" — FamilySearch.org". ancestry.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- ^Parrish, Robert James (1972). The Paramount Pretties. Arlington House. p. 410. ISBN .
- ^Thomas, Calvin Beck (1978). Scream Queens: Heroines of the Horrors. Macmillan. p. 169. ISBN .
- ^Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen (1998). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. McFarland. p. 300. ISBN .
- ^"I, Veronica". Life. Time, Inc. 14 (20): 78. May 17, 1943. ISSN 0024-3019.
- ^Life magazine, 17 May 1943, pg 82
- ^ abcde"Cinderell Girl of '41". Chicago Daily Tribune. February 23, 1941. p. 3.
- ^(Chierichetti 2004, p. 70)
- ^"Current Films". Los Angeles Times. January 29, 1939. p. C4.
- ^Von Blon, Katherine (August 21, 1939). "She Made Her Bed". Los Angeles Times. p. 9.
- ^"I, Veronica". Life. Time, Inc. 14 (20): 77. May 17, 1943. ISSN 0024-3019.
- ^Strauss, Theodore (November 8, 1942). "Veronica Lake, Full Face". New York Times. p. X3.
- ^"Veronica Lake is Paramount's Bid for Year's Best Glamor Starlet". LIFE. Time Inc. 10 (9): 83. March 3, 1941. Retrieved August 7, 2017.
- ^ abcdeGale, Bill (August 24, 1969). "Lake: 'To Work ...and to Live': Veronica Lake". New York Times. p. D13.
- ^ abc"'Peek-a-Boo' Star Veronica Lake Hepatitis Victim". The Victoria Advocate. July 8, 1973. p. 6-A. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^Churchill, Douglas (April 2, 1945). "Warners Buys the Corn is Green". New York Times. p. 27.
- ^"Ladd, Lake Together In 'Saigon'". The Deseret News. March 3, 1948. p. 13. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^Robert Osborne, Turner Classic Movies, October 6, 2010
- ^(Terkel 1999, p. 168)
- ^"Of Local Origin". New York Times. October 24, 1941. p. 27.
- ^(Donnelley 2003, p. 392)
- ^(Parish & Pitts 2003, p. 480)
- ^(Hiney 1999, p. 154)
- ^"Veronica Lake's remains resurface". usatoday.com. October 12, 2004. Archived from the original on September 22, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
- ^(Starr 2003, pp. 128–29)
- ^ abcBrenner, John Lanouette (August 26, 1967). "Veronica Lake Gives Telegraph Exclusive Personal Interview". The Telegraph. p. 9. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^"Tobin Shines As Butler At Bond Lunch: $100,000 Luncheon Served at Tobin Home". The Christian Science Monitor. Boston. June 13, 1944. p. 1.
- ^Hopper, Hedda (July 20, 1944). "Sonny Sings a Song!". The Washington Post. p. 5.
- ^ abcSchallert, Edwin (July 8, 1945). "Change of Pace in Roles Beckons Veronica Lake: Star to Pause at Career's Crossroads Roles to Shift for Veronica". Los Angeles Times. p. C1.
- ^Schallert, Edwin (March 11, 1950). "Drama: D'Arrast, Glazer Plan Spanish Feature; Power Debates British Stage". Los Angeles Times. p. 11.
- ^"Veronica Lake, Named as Film Suit Claimant". Los Angeles Times. March 28, 1962. p. 34.
- ^"Veronica Lake Says She's Bankrupt". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. August 17, 1951. p. 1. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- ^"Actress Loses Home For Not Paying Tax". Lodi News–Sentinel. April 7, 1951. p. 8. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- ^ abcKlemesrud, Judy (March 14, 1971). "What Ever Happened to Veronica Lake?". The Palm Beach Post. p. C6. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- ^"Veronica Lake In Hospital". The Age. October 28, 1955. p. 1. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^"Veronica Lake is a Waitress Now". The Milwaukee Journal. March 22, 1962. p. 11. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^"Once Glittering Star: Veronica Lake Now Cocktail Waitress". Los Angeles Times. March 23, 1962. p. 2.
- ^ ab"Actress Veronica Lake Dies In Vermont Hospital". The Virgin Island Daily News. July 9, 1973. p. 2. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^Best Foot Forward (1963 Off-Broadway Revival)Archived 2018-08-18 at the Wayback Machine at Internet Off-Broadway Database
- ^ ab"Peek-A-Boo Veronica Lake Dies At 51". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. July 8, 1973. p. 9-A. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
- ^ ab"Veronica Lake Wins Divorce". The Miami News. December 2, 1943. p. 1. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- ^"Veronica Lake's Baby, Born Prematurely, Dies". Reading Eagle. July 16, 1943. p. 18. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- ^"Veronica Lake Sued By Mother". The Tuscaloosa News. October 12, 1948. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- ^"Turner Classic Movies". Tcmdb.com. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- ^"Veronica Lake Wins Divorce From Director". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. June 3, 1952. p. 12. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- ^"Veronica Lake Weds Ex-County Tunesmith". The Herald. September 4, 1955. p. 2. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- ^Vermont Death Records, 1909–2003. Vermont State Archives and Records Administration, Montpelier, Vermont.
- ^"Veronica Lake to Be Buried in Islands". The Virgin Islands Daily News. July 11, 1973. p. 1.
- ^"Rites for Miss Lake Today". The New York Times. July 11, 1973.
- ^Johnston, Lauren (October 12, 2004). "Veronica Lake's Ashes For Sale?". cbsnews.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- ^"Hollywood Star Walk: Veronica Lake". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- ^"Beware This Woman". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- ^Review at Variety
- ^"Veronica Lake Is Added To War Loan Show Cast: Bay State Quota Other Ovations". The Christian Science Monitor. June 9, 1944. p. 2.
- ^"Veronica Taking Lead Role". The New York Times. July 20, 1951. p. 13.
- ^"Veronica Lake Will Hit Strawhat Trail at Olney". The Washington Post. August 26, 1951. p. L-2.
- ^Calta, Louis (October 25, 1952). "Stage Lead for Veronica Lake: Film Actress May Make Debut on Broadway in 'Masquerade,' Birchard-Stagg Comedy". The New York Times. p. 2.
- ^Waters (1953-04-22). "Plays Out of Town | Masquerade". Variety. p. 58. Retrieved 2021-04-27 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ ab"'Hut' $13,000 in Buffalo; Veronica Lake Out Ill". Variety. 1955-10-05. p. 65. Retrieved 2021-04-27 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ ab"Veronica's 'Hut' 8G Indpls". Variety. 1955-10-19. p. 72. Retrieved 2021-04-27 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ ab"Beronica-'Hut' 8G, Det". Variety. 1955-10-26. p. 57. Retrieved 2021-04-27 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ ab"Veronica Lake $10,000 In 'Little Hut' Cincy". Variety. 1955-10-12. p. 73. Retrieved 2021-04-27 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ ab"Science Teacher is Summertime Producer". Variety. 1959-07-08. p. 89. Retrieved 2021-04-27 – via Internet Archive.
- ^ ab"Chatter | Chicago". Variety. 1959-07-15. p. 86. Retrieved 2021-04-27 – via Internet Archive.
- ^"Best Foot Forward". Lortel Archives. Retrieved 2021-04-27.
- ^Ghisays, Robert (October 25, 1952). "Veronica Lake Opens in London 'Streetcar'". Los Angeles Times. p. E11.
- ^Weinraub, Bernard (August 1, 1988). "An Animator Breaks Old Rules and New Ground in 'Roger Rabbit'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
- ^(Hischak 2011, p. 214)
- ^"Video: Period films connected by the past". The Los Angeles Daily News. April 17, 1998. Archived from the original on June 11, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2012. – via HighBeam(subscription required)
- ^(Hare 2008, p. 219)
- ^Folkart, Burt A. (October 13, 1989). "Jay Ward Dies; He Created Rocky, Bullwinkle for TV". Archived from the original on July 15, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2014 – via LA Times.
- ^Sherman, Robert B., (2013) "Veronica" in Moose: Chapters from My Life, AuthorHouse, pp. 301-04
- ^"Paulette Goddard and Veronica Lake". February 9, 1943. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- ^"Ginny Simms and Veronica Lake". Internet Archive. February 18, 1945. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- ^"This Gun For Hire". Internet Archive. April 2, 1945. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- ^"Those Were the Days". Nostalgia Digest. 41 (2): 32–41. Spring 2015.
- ^"The Blue Dahlia". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen (2009). Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film. McFarland. ISBN .
- Chierichetti, David (2004). Edith Head: The Life and Times of Hollywood's Celebrated Costume. HarperCollins. ISBN .
- Donnelley, Paul (2003). Fade To Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Omnibus Press. ISBN .
- Hare, William (2008). L.A. Noir: Nine Dark Visions of the City of Angels. McFarland & Company. ISBN .
- Hiney, Tom (1999). Raymond Chandler: A Biography. Grove Press. ISBN .
- Hischak, Thomas S. (2011). Disney Voice Actors: A Biographical Dictionary. McFarland & Company. ISBN .
- Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R. (2003). Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who Act and Actors Who Sing: A Biographical Dictionary. Taylor & Francis. ISBN .
- Starr, Kevin (2003). Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950. Oxford University Press. ISBN .
- Terkel, Studs (1999). The Spectator: Talk About Movies and Plays With Those Who Made Them. The New Press. ISBN .
- Lake, Veronica; Bain, Donald (1970). Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake. Citadel Press; ISBN 0-806-50225-8
- Lenburg, Jeff, Peekaboo: The Story of Veronica Lake. iUniverse, 2001; ISBN 978-0-595-19239-7.
- Oderman, Stuart, Talking to the Piano Player 2. BearManor Media, 2009; ISBN 978-1-59393-320-3
- Vagg, Stephen (11 February 2020). "The Cinema of Veronica Lake". Diabolique.
Highest Rated: 100% Sullivan's Travels (1941)
Lowest Rated: 13% Isn't It Romantic? (1948)
Birthday: Nov 14, 1919
Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York, USA
An icy blonde whose trademark hairstyle - a cascade of golden tresses that obscured one heavy-lidded eye - remained among the enduring images of Hollywood glamour, Veronica Lake was for a time, one of the most popular and sought-after actresses in motion pictures. She starred in a handful of features that, though the years, earned legendary status, including the film noirs, "This Gun for Hire" (1942) and "The Blue Dahlia" (1946), as well as the smart comedies, "Sullivan's Travels" (1941) and "I Married a Witch" (1942). She also motivated a generation of women to imitate her cool sexuality and chic style, at the same time, causing an equal number of men - particularly fighting WWII G.I.s - to fall for her. Lake stood the test of time as a Tinseltown icon, inspiring tribute in songs, literature, and movies.
PhotosSkip to Quotes
Veronica Lake: Life and Death of 'Sullivan's Travels' and 'I Married a Witch' Star
Veronica Lake was a well-loved actress whose life ended at the age of 50 - here is all you need to know about her.
Born as Constance Frances Marie Ockleman, Veronica Lake was a well-known film, stage, and television actor, born in 1922.
According to her IMDB page, the actress began her Hollywood career when she appeared in the 1939 RKO film, “Sorority House.” Veronica followed that project up with “All Women Have Secrets,” “Dancing Co-Ed, “Young as You Feel,” and “Forty Little Mothers.”
Years after her death, Veronica still gets praised for her appearance in “Sullivan’s Travels,” a 1941 movie that many consider the “finest film” from director Preston Sturges.
Although she was working under her original name of Constance Keane, she was asked to change it when she landed a speaking role in 1941's “I Wanted Wings.”
With the change of name and appearance in the 1941 film came some success and recognition that led to more appearances in movies like “So Proudly We Hail!,” “Hold That Blonde!,” “Out of This World,” and “The Hour Before the Dawn.”
Between 1952 and 1966, Veronica made television appearances and even tried her hand on the stage, but none of her attempts worked in her favor.
It was during this down period that the actress turned to alcohol and began living in an old hotel while working as a bartender.
Although she returned to the big screen in 1966 and the silver screen in 1970, her career soon ended as she died of hepatitis in 1973.
While many people assumed that the ill-luck she suffered during her film career drove her to the bottle, Closer Weekly reported that it wasn’t the case.
The news outlet narrated that in the recently republished book, “Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake,” it was revealed that Veronica decided to leave Hollywood in search of a simpler life. The actress reportedly stated in the book that:
“I had to get out. I was never psychologically meant to be a picture star.”
Fox News added that Veronica had reportedly turned to alcohol to relieve herself from the symptoms of schizophrenia - a mental disorder that she was diagnosed with when she was still a child.
Years after her death, Veronica still gets praised for her appearance in “Sullivan’s Travels,” a 1941 movie that many consider the “finest film” from director Preston Sturges.
According to Britannica, the movie’s plot focused on John Lloyd Sullivan (played by Joel McCrea), a spoiled Hollywood director who decides to make a film about the oppressed in society.
Joel was joined on his journey by six-month pregnant Veronica, who played the role of a struggling actress.
When they decide they …
When they decide they might as well be penniless husbands and wives as penniless campus sweethearts, three couples at a Midwestern university, against the advice of their friends, get married. Joe and Susie Tucker prove that two can live as cheap as one by setting up housekeeping in a trailer, and working at whatever odd jobs turn up. Slats and Jennifer Warwick marry because they can fight better under the same roof then when separated, and use Jennifer's allowance from home to pay for their groceries. John Gregory, a brilliant pre-med student, and his bride, Kay, are in the most serious situation. Kay's allowance is suddenly cut off by her unsympathetic step-mother, while the scholarship on which John is depending is threatened by his inability to do two jobs at once - study all day and work at night to support them. Kay, determined to prevent John from giving up college, takes a series of back-breaking jobs in order to give him time to study. She gets a job singing in a night club, but has to quit when the stork announces an imminent arrival. Her secret, being pregnant, helps her to make up her mind to go back home and leave John free to accept the offer of a professor who wants the promising student to work with him abroad.
Imdb veronica lake
I paid for everyone - everyone was happy with the dinner, and the canteen's cash desk was. An excellent profit. Canteen, listen to the order - all the food in the last car and on the bus yourself, leave in half an hour.Veronica Lake - Top 18 Highest Rated Movies
Lena pushed him aside and headed for the exit. He did not bother to hold her and immediately opened the door. Leaving the threshold, Nikolai caught up with her and held out his purse.
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My hands and feet, oiled my ass. He laughed for a long time, looking at the drawings on my buttocks. He fed me, and then realizing that I do not understand their language, he took me on us. We could not see who was sitting in the hall. But we could be clearly seen from all sides.